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Behaviorism and Social Learning
Transcript of Behaviorism and Social Learning
to see how
it works Children learn communication skills from their parents/caretakers. As they grow older they develop the same type of communication skills. The social learning process begins at a very early age. According to research conducted by Albert Bandura,
people learn new behaviors, values and attitudes by
observing others. For example, a teen may learn to
skip school from his/her peers by observing their
actions and consequences. Social Learning Teenagers can learn positive communication skills by observing their parents and other adults Communicate in positive ways and receive positive outcomes.
Positive outcomes will more likely produce more positive communication. Not sure what to do? Just follow the path and Let's see how it works Don't Give UP!!!!! that are fair
and practical Introduction to
Behaviorism and Social Learning:
Skinner and Bandura
CD 650/Fall, 2012
Rosalyn Reed B. F. Skinner built on Pavlov's classical conditioning using the stimulus - response method to understand behavior. look at what research says... "By observing what sorts of
stimuli elicited what sort
of response, psychologist could
explain what makes
people behave as they do"
(Thomas, p 123). Stimulus for Penny is chocolate Response for Sheldon is Skinner noted that there are two types of conditioning:
Stimulus - Response conditioning: some type of stimuli to emit a response
A method of conditioning through consequences
(Thomas, 123) Skinner believed the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of a behavior and the consequences.
Ex. Teen calling parent when he is going to be late coming home. Consequences:
Skinner identified different types of consequences and how they are used to elicit desired behavior. Positive reinforcer - parent praising teen for calling when
they are going to be late and allows more time.
Negative reinforcer - turning cell
phone off during school in order not to interrupt learning and avoid having it taken away. PUNISHMENTs- are consequences to reduce the tendency to repeat the same behavior in the future. The goal is for the behavior to be extinct. Ex. Grounding from cell phone for texting inappropriate material. Shaping and Chaining Reinforcements Shaping-consist of reinforcing any type of progress a teen makes towards a desired act. The desired act can be shaped by gradual steps into a more refined desired act by requiring better and better outcomes before reinforcement. Thirteen Ex. Getting your teenager to clean room. A parent can start out with reinforcing any type of clean up in general.
Then progress to reinforcement for organizing closet only.
Then progress to reinforcement for bringing laundry to laundry room.
Then progress to reinforcement for making bed.
Finally, progress to reinforcement when all the tasks are completed. Chaining - involves reinforcing individual responses occurring in a sequence to form a complex behavior.
This process can be used to allow many behaviors to follow one another before reinforcement is actually delivered. Skinner believed behavior can be
controlled by consequences - a type of reinforcement following the behavior Reward - reinforcer
positive reinforcer - strengthen tendencies to repeat the act
negative reinforcer - strengthen tendencies not to repeat the act + _ Ex. Teenager cleaning room would complete one task at a time before reinforcement is given.
They would pick up clothes, make the bed, and organize closet The Scope of Skinner's Theory
1) It is not limited to any control setting
2) It's principles apply to all age levels, from prenatal to death
3) It claims to explain all varieties of behavior Skinner's Radical Behaviorism tried to demonstrate orderly relations between behavior and the environment.
He did not trust the investigations of thoughts and feelings and depended analysis of environmental conditions and people's reactions. Skinner believed the basic drive behind all behavior is to survive In environments that are stable for a long period of time a human can directly inherit traits for survival.
In environments that are unstable and change often it is better for a human to learn the ability to adapt more frequently. Skinner's Theory on Child Rearing Skinner saw child development as fulfilling the child's needs quickly and completely as possible in earliest years. Then very gradually, the demands and annoyances of normal life are introduced at a controlled rate ensures that children can master them without aquiring negative feelings. Recommended Text:
Walden Two - Walden Two is a utopian novel written by behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner, first published in 1948. In its time, it could have been considered to be science fiction, as the methods employed to alter people's behavior did not yet exist.