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Team Work

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Ipsa Bhargav

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Team Work

Team Work
Table Of Contents
What is Team Work?
Teamwork is the process of people actively working together to accomplish common goals.
Pros of Team Work
-More resources for problem solving
-Improved creativity and innovation
-Improved quality of decision-making
-Greater commitments to tasks
-Higher motivation through collective action
-More individual need satisfaction

What is Team Work ?
Pros /Cons
Formal/Informal Groups

Study Question 1
Study Question 2
Committees, Project teams, and task forces
Cross Functional Teams
Virtual Teams
Self-Managing Teams
Team Building
Study Question 3
Study Question 4
Study Question 5
Study Question 6
Cons of Teamwork
Social loafing: is the tendency of some people to avoid responsibility by "free-riding" in groups.
Characteristics of a broken team:
Absence of trust
Fear of conflict
Lack of commitment
Disagreements with team leader
Formal/Informal Group
A formal group is officially recognized and supported by the organization.
An informal group is unofficial and emerges from relationships and shared interests among members.
Study Question 1
Study Question 2
is designated to work on a continuing basis
project team
task force
is convened for a specific purpose and disbands when its task is completed
cross-functional team
operates with members who come from different functional units of an organization
Types Of Teams
Members of a
virtual team
work together and solve problems through computer-based interations
Members of a
work team have the authority to make a decisions about how they share and complete their work.
Team Building
Team building
is a sequence of activities to analyze a team and make changes to improve its performance
Functional and Dysfunctional conflict
Causes of Conflict
Conflict Resolution
Negotiation goals and approaches
Gaining integrative agreements
Negotiation Pitfalls
Third-Party Resolution
Study Question 5
Functional and Dysfunctional conflict
Functional conflict stimulates people toward greater work efforts, cooperation and creativity. It helps groups achieve their goals.
Dysfunctional conflict makes it difficult for groups to achieve thier goals. Too much conflict distracts and interferes with tasks; too little conflict promotes complacency and the loss of creative, high performance edge.
Causes of Conflict/Resolution
Role ambiguities often set a stage for conflict due to unclear job expectations and other task uncertainties.
Resource scarcities- Having to share or compete for resources, especially when scarce, can lead to conflict.
Task interdependencies- Individuals having to depend on what others do to perform.
Competing objectives - When objectives are poorly set and reward systems are poorly designed.
Structural differentiation- Incompatible approaches of work may foster conflict.
Unresolved prior conflicts- Self explanatory, unresolved conflicts may emerge and cause even more conflict.
Conflict resolution is taking steps in effort to peacefully end conflict.
Study Question 6
Negotiation goals
Substance goals- Concerned with outcomes and are tied to content issues.
Negotiation Approaches
Effective negotiation resolves issues of substance while maintaining a positive process.

Distributive negotiation focuses on win-lose claims made by each party for certain preferred outcomes.

Integrative negotiation uses a win-win orientation to reach solutions acceptable to each party
Gaining integrative agrements
Negotiation Pitfalls
Relationship goals- Negotiation are concerned with the ways people work together.
Proper attitudes and good information are necessary foundations for integrative agreements.
Truly integrative agreements are obtained by following four negotiation rules:

1. Separate the people from the problem.

2. Focus on interests, not on positions.

3. Generate many alternatives before deciding what to do.

4. Insist that result be based on some objective standard.
1. Myth of the "fixed pie" - Assuming that in order to gain something, someone must loose something.
2. Non-rational escalation of conflict - Negotiator allows personal needs for "ego" and "saving face" to increase importance of satisfaction.
3. Overconfidence and ignoring other's needs - Negotiator believes his/her position is the only correct one and neglects the needs of the other party.
4. Too much "telling" and too little "hearing" - When the two parties fail to explain themselves and understand what each other is saying.
5. Premature cultural comfort - Negotiator is too quick to believe that he/she undersands, intentions, positions, and meanings of a different culture.
6. Trap of ethical misconduct - The desire to "get a bit more" or "get as much as you can" from a negotiation.
Third-Party Dispute Resolution
Meditation- A neutral party tries to help conflicting parties improve communication to resolve their dispute.
Arbitration- A neutral third party issues a binding decision resolve a dispute.
When disputes reach the point of impasse, third-party assistance with dispute resolution can be useful.
There are two important goals to be considered in any negotiation.
Decision making: Is the process of making choices among alternative possible courses of actions.
Team Decision making
The best team decision making happens when more than one of these methods are used. These methods are most effective when the whole team is involved and saying their ideas. This way everyone is putting in their full effort, and they feel like they are a part of the team.

Groupthink- Is a tendency for highly cohesive teams to lose their evaluative capabilities.

Brainstorming- Good brainstorming is when groups are able to say their ideas knowing that there is no wrong answer and that they will not be judged on what they say. The definition of brainstorming is “Engages group members in an open spontaneous discussion of problems and ideas.”

The scholar Edgar Schein says that there are six different methods that team can choose to make decisions. They are, Lack of response, authority rule, minority rule, majority rule, consensus, and unanimity.
Lack of Response- The team continuously shouts out ideas. They do this until they finally accept an idea and start to expand on it. It is called lack of response because; all of the other ideas were skipped and not expanded on.
Authority rule- The leader of the group makes a decision and whether it is good or bad the team has to follow it.
Minority rule- Is when a few members of the team force their ideas onto the team. They are able to do this by suggesting something and then forcing a quick agreement. This is effective because, other team members do not want to challenge the idea even though they might not agree, so instead they just stay quiet and go with it.
Majority rule- Is used when the group is in disagreement. So, to solve the problem the group takes a vote and the idea with the most votes wins and the other loses.
Study Question 4
Consensus- Is when the group argues both sides and each member get to share their argument. What happens is that at the end the people arguing are able to accept the other people’s alternative and have no hard feelings because they know that they were heard by the team.
Unanimity- Is the hardest out the six to happen because all members on the team agree with the same course of action.
Nominal Group Technique- It is like brainstorming. However, the way this technique works is that people get time to themselves to think about ideas and then they say their ideas to the group in a round robin. After they decide on ideas with written voting procedure.

Team input
Stages of team development
Norms and Cohesiveness
Task and Maintenance roles
Communication networks
Study Question 3
Resources & setting
Nature of task

Team size
Number of members
Even odd number

Membership Characteristic
Stages of team development
Forming- a stage of initial orientation and interpersonal testing
Storming- a stage of conflict over task and working as a team
Norming- a stage of consolidation
Performing- a stage of teamwork and focused task performance
Adjourning- a stage of task completion and disengagement
Team inputs
Norms and cohesiveness
A norm is a behaviour, rule, or standard expected to be followed by team members. Work groups and teams with positive performance norms are more successful in accomplishing task objectives than are teams with a negative performance norms
Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attracted to and motivated to remain part of a team
Resources and setting

The availability of resources and the nature of the organization setting can affect how team members relate to one another and apply their skills toward task accomplishment
Nature of the task
The nature of task affects how well a team can focus its efforts and how intense the group process must be to get the job done
Team size
The number of potential interactions increase geometrically as teams increase in size and communication becomes more congested
Membership Characteristic
Teams need members with the right abilities, or skill mix, to master and perform task well
Task and maintenance roles
Research on social psychology of groups identifies two types of roles or activities that are essential if team members are to work well together.
task activity
is an action taken by a team member that directly contributes to the groups performance purpose.
maintenance activity
is an action taken by a team member that supports the emotional life of the group.
Communication networks
decentralized communication network
allows all members to communicate directly with one another
In a
centralized communication network
, communication flows only between individuals members and a hub, or centre point
In a
restricted communication network
, subgroups have limited communication with one another
Decision Making
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