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Transcript of Picture Dictionary
Big Idea 1
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The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.
This rose bush shows the evolution of its thorns. Rose plants didn't have thorns at first, however they evolved into plants with thorns to protect themselves from animals that eat them.
The studied variable that's expected to change when the independent variable is changed.
The variable that's intentionally changed to observe its effect on the dependent variable.
In an experiment testing how chemicals in different fertilizers affect plant growth, the independent variable is the different chemicals in the fertilizers.
The material that carries all of the genetic information of living things.
DNA can be found in live hair follicles-such as the uprooted hair in this brush.
Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
When a dog eats, the food entering its biological systems is used to help it grow, reproduce, etc.
Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.
Living systems, such as this plant, store, retrieve, and transmit the sun's energy to go through important life processes such as photosynthesis.
Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.
As blood circulates through our veins (such as in the picture) it eventually needs fresh oxygen from the air. When blood reaches the lungs, which is part of the respiratory system, the blood is re-oxygenated. In this example, the circulatory system is interacting with the respiratory system to make sure we have oxygenated blood in our bodies.
A DNA-cutting enzyme found in bacteria and archaea. It is also called a restriction endonuclease.
The human mouth contains over 500 species of bacteria. Restriction enzymes are found in bacteria. They are a DNA-cutting enzyme, and DNA can be found in the saliva in your mouth.
The alternate form of a genetic character found at a given locus on a chromosome
Height, a complex trait, is usually caused by numerous pairs of alleles-not just one such as for simple traits like eye color.
The DNA molecule in bacteria and viruses that has the most, if not all, of the genetic information of the cell/virus.
There are chromosomes in your DNA, such as in this fingerprint. If your were to take a sample of it, you would have many chromosomes in the sample.
A chromosome complement with two copies of each chromosome.
Skin cells are diploid, along with all of the cells in the human body except for gametes.
The mature sexual reproductive cell; the egg or sperm.
The eggs in females are gametes.
A unit of heredity; the unit of genetic function that carries the information for a polypeptide or RNA.
Genes control what you look like and are passed down from parent to offspring. For example, my sister got most of my mom's genes, making her look more like our mom.
The exact description of the genetic constitution of an individual, either with respects to a single or a set of traits.
Having different alleles of a given gene on the pair of homologous carrying that gene; in diploid organisms
The gene for the seed shape in pea plants has two forms: one for round seed shape (R) and the other for wrinkled seed shape (r). A heterozygous pea plant would have alleles Rr.
Having identical alleles of a given gene on both homologous chromosomes; in diploid organisms.
The genes of a person's shoe size is also known as the genotype. It's what makes up the trait.
Having a full head of hair has a homozygous gene of HH.
The number, forms, and types of chromosomes of a cell.
The karyotype of a normal female would be written as 46, XX (number of chromosomes, sex chromosomes).
A change in genetic material not caused by recombination.
Red hair appears in people with two copies of a recessive gene on chromosome 16. This causes a mutation in the MC1R protein.
The observable properties of an individual from genetic and environment factors.
Black hair is a phenotype.
An allele that doesn't determine phenotype in the presence of the dominant allele.
Blue eyes are a recessive trait.
A specific form of character.
Brown eyes are a trait.
An allele that determines phenotype, masking the effect of the recessive allele.
Curly hair is a dominant trait.
Metabolic processes in which the energy in visible light is trapped and used to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds by green plants and cyanobacteria.
Tomato plants go through photosynthesis to make food and energy.
The total amount of chemical reactions that occur in an organism, or some subset of that total.
After you eat food, enzymes in the digestive system break down proteins into amino acids, fats into fatty acids, and carbohydrates into sugars.
The maintenance of a steady state by means of physiological or behavioral feedback responses.
An example of homeostasis is your bodily function of maintaining healthy blood pressure. The heart senses changes in blood pressure, causing it to send signals to the brain, which sends signals back telling the heart how to respond.
The catabolic pathways where electrons are removed from various molecules and passed through intermediate electron carriers to Oxygen, generating water and releasing energy.
The glucose needed for cellular respiration is made by plants.
-Carries infromation as a sequence of codons for the synthesis of one or more proteins.
-Ribonucleic Acid; Single stranded nucleic acid whose nucleotides use ribose instead of deoxyrubose; base uracil replace hymine found in DNA.
mRNA-RNA is a nucleic acid that carries information from DNA that controls the synthesis of proteins in your body. The DNA can be found in saliva from your tongue.
The mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin; the differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types that belong to the same population.
Having an impressive tail gives male peacocks a higher chance of finding a mate. Females choose mates based on the color of the tail and the overall physical prowess.
Simplest structural unit of a living organism; building block tissues and organs of muticellular organisms.
Every living thing, including this fly, has at least one cell in its body.
Organelle bounded by a double membrane that has enzymes and pigments that perform photosynthesis; occur only in eukaryotes.
Plants have chloroplast in their leaves to perform photosynthesis.
Organelle in eukaryotic cells that have enzymes of the citric acid cycle, the respiratory chain, and oxidative phosphorylation.
The mitochondria is found in eukaryotic cells of eukaryotes, like this fish.
Fixed Action Pattern
Genetically determined behavior that's performed without learning, stereotypic, and not modifiable by learning.
FAP is also seen in humans when they yawn. Yawns are triggered when you see someone else yawn, and once they start, you can't stop it.
Form of learning where two unrelated stimuli become linked to the same response.
An example of associative learning in humans is if a man smells a certain perfume that his wife wears and starts to miss her.
Rapid form of learning where an animal learns, during a brief critical period, to make a particular response, which is maintained for life, to some object or organism.
When ducks and geese are born, they imprint on their mothers (or the first thing they see) and learn to follow them around.
Behavior that benefits others at a cost to the individual who performed it.
Firefighters perform acts of altruism when they risk their lives saving other people.
When an animal defines and defends its territory.
A set of relationships that's based on hierarchical rankings that are usually established and maintained by behavior in aggressive encounters.
Ants have dominance hierarchies; all of the colonies are controlled by one queen ant. The smaller ants work for the queen ant.
Semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.
A cell membrane is like a plastic bag with holes in it: it holds all of the cell pieces and fluids inside the cell and keeps any bad things out of the cell. The holes let some things move in and out of the cell.
Organism whose cell has its genetic material inside a nucleus; includes all life except viruses, archaea, and bacteria.
Oak trees are eukaryotes.
Unicellular organism that doesn't have a nucleus.
Bacteria, a prokaryote, can be found in soil.
Dogs are a type of animal.
Substance that can release a proton in solution.
Vinegar is an example of an acid.
Substance that can accept a hydrogen ion in solution.
Living organism that feeds on organic matter and has specialized sense organs and nervous systems; are able to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Water is an example of a base.
Having the same alleles or genes in the same order of arrangement.
A human arm, a dolphin's flipper, a cat's leg, and a bird's wing are considered homologous structures because they all share a similar bone structure.
Sunlight is abiotic.
An organism that's capable of living only on inorganic materials, water, and some energy source such as sunlight or chemically reduced matter.
Moss is an autotroph.
Movement of inorganic elements through living organisms and the physical environment.
The rock cycle is a biogeochemical cycle in which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks change into eachother through heat and pressure, cooling, meting, and weather and erosion.
The ocean is part of the aquatic biome.
A major division of the ecological communities of Earth, primarily characterized by distinctive vegetation.
Number of individuals the resources of the environment can support.
Organism that eats the tissues of other organisms.
Humans are consumers; everything we eat comes from the tissues of other organisms.
Organism that metabolizes organic compounds in debris and dead organisms, releasing organic material; found in bacteria, protists, and fungi.
Fungi, like this mushroom, are decomposers.
The particular environment in which an organism lives.
Soil is a habitat for organisms such as bacteria.
Organism that requires preformed organic molecules as food.
Animals such as dogs are heterotrophs.
An animal that eats plant tissues.
Herbivores eat plants, such as the bitten leaves shown above.
Set of physical and biological conditions a species needs to survive, grow, and reproduce.
A plant's niche is sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and nutrients.
Organism that eats animal and plant material.
Flies are omnivores.
The living together of two or more species in a prolonged and intimate relationship.
In the ocean, because shrimp are blind, they have a close relationship with goby fish where the goby fish touch them when a predator is near.
Environmental factor that tends to limit population size.
Food is often a limiting factor if the population gets too large.
Process of behavioral modification where an animal is encouraged to behave a desired way through positive or negative reinforcement.
By getting a medal, people feel rewarded; they feel motivated to run by the idea that they will be awarded with a medal again.
The alteration in responding that happens when two stimuli are regularly paired in close succession; the response given to the second stimulus come to be given to the first.
Ivan Pavlov taught dogs to anticipate the arrival of their food with the sound of a bell (such as the one above) ringing.
Behavior that includes aggression, defense, and avoidance.
Agonistic behavior is shown in the popular game of football; the players will play aggressively (tackle) and defend their territory (the ball).
Straight-chain polymer of glucose molecules; used by plants as a structural supporting material.
All plants, including this green pepper plant, contain cellulose in their cells for support in their structure.
The vascular tissue that transports sugar and other solutes from sources to sinks in vascular plants.
Vascular plants, such as trees that hold pine cones, contain phloem in their tissues. Phloem occurs on the outer side of the vascular bundle.
Process of transferring pollen from one anther to the stigma of a pistil in an angiosperm or from a strobilus to an ovule in a gymnosperm.
Ants are pollinators. They pollinate by walking on flowers and picking up pollen on their feet that gets distributed to other plants as they walk from place to place.
Fertilized, ripened ovule of a gymnosperm or angiosperm. Consists of the embryo, nutritive tissue, and a seed coat
These are seeds used to grow different types of plants.
Any asexual reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult organism without gametic fusion; a resistant cell capable of surviving unfavorable periods in prokaryotes.
Moss reproduce from spores.
Plant tissue that consists of ducts or vessels that, in higher plants, forms the vascular system by which sap is conveyed through the plant.
Vascvular plants such as this pine tree contain vascular tissue. Vascular tissue is found in the stems, roots, and leaves of all vascular plants.
In vascular plants, tissue that conducts water and minerals; consists (in various plants) of tracheids, vessel elements, fibers, and other highly specialized cells.
Vascular plants, such as this fern, contain xylem, which is located in the center of the vascular bundle.
The modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience.
A child learns how to mow the lawn by watching his father do it for years.
An act or instance of working together for a common purpose or benefit; joint action
Reduction of psychological or behavioral response occurring when a specific stimulus occurs repeatedly.
Ducks in ponds are scared of people and tend to swim away. However, as humans continue to interact with them, they realize we're no threat and stop swimming away.
Pertaining to a system that maintains its own viability by using techniques that allow for continual reuse; able to be supported as with the basic necessities or sufficient funds.
The woods/forests are sustainable, because they are able to maintain the lives of the organisms as well as the ecosystem as a whole.
An autotrophic organism capable of producing complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules through the process of photosynthesis.
Grass is a producer.
Very large group of microorganisms comprising one of three domains of living organisms; prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animals.
Bacteria can very often be found in water such as this pond.
Any of a diverse group of eukaryotic single-celled organisms that live by decomposing and absorbing the organic material in which they grow.
Mold is a common type of fungus.
Any of various one-celled organisms classified in the kingdom Protista; either free-living or assembled into simple colonies; have diverse reproductive and nutritional modes.
Algae is a Protist, although it and slime mold are sometimes called the odds and ends of the kingdom because they are so different from one another.
In an experiment testing how the different chemicals in fertilizers affect plant growth, the dependent variable is the plant growth.
People work together, or cooperate, in sports such as basketball for a common goal: winning.
The carrying capacity depends on how many resources are available. If there are only four bananas available for a group of monkeys-one for each monkey-then the carrying capacity would be four.
By placing my things on the couch, I am marking my territory, so everyone knows not to sit there.