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Major Philosophical Time Periods

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alondra cortes

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Major Philosophical Time Periods

The Middle Ages The Baroque The Enlightenment Romanticism The Renaissance Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton Socrates, Plato, Aristotle ST.Augustine and
St.Thomas Aquinas The Major Philosophical Time Periods Sophie's World Antiquity Socrates (470-399 B.C.) was the first of the great philosopher to be born in Athens. He is known to be the founder of Western philosophy. Although he never wrote a word down. Everything we know from him came from one of his pupils, Plato. Socrates would act like if he was dumb to make people use common since, this in now known as Socratic irony. Socrates was agnostic, which means he was unable to say whether gods or God exists. Socrates was sentenced to death because of his philosophical activities. Plato (428-347) was a Greek philosopher and a student of Socrates. Plato wrote a collection of Epistles and about twenty-five philosophical Dialogues in addition of Socrates. Plato believed that there was only one real version of anything. One way to explain this is using an example: there are many types of horses but they all have that thing that makes them horses even if they are different. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was a pupil of Plato for almost twenty years. Aristotle was mostly interested in nature study, and he was Europe's first biologist. He believed that things that are in the human soul are purely reflections of natural objects. he thought that Plato had turned everything upside down. Aristotle believed that there is a purpose behind everything in nature, this is called the final cause. St. Augustine (354 – 430) was a Latin philosopher. He is considered as one of the greatest christian thinkers of all times. His writings influenced the development of Western Christianity.He believed that the grace of Christ was necessary to human freedom and he framed the concepts of original sin and just war. Augustine developed the concept of the Catholic Church as a spiritual City of God. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1275) was an Italian Dominican priest and a philosopher. He is considered the Church's greatest theologian and philosopher. he believed that the truths of faith are above human understanding. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was a renaissance philosopher. Nicolaus believed that the earth revolved around the sun, and the sun was the center of the universe. He also theorized that the earth and other planets circled around the sun and this is called the heliocentric world picture. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was one of the most important scientists of the seventeenth century. He said that the book of nature is written in the language of mathematics. He observed the moon's craters and said that the moon had mountains and valleys similar to those in earth.the greatest significance of Galileo was that he formulated the Law of Inertia. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science". Galileo Galilei played a major role in science. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He believed that the ebb and flow of the tides the rise and fall in sea-level must be result of a lunar force. Kepler also included religious arguments in his work. He believed that God created the world. Kepler described astronomy as "celestial physics." Isaac Newton (1642-1727) has been considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. He believed that every object attracts every other object with a force that increases in proportion to the size of the objects and decreases in proportion to the distance between the objects. Rene Descartes Baruch Spinoza John Locke David Hume George Berkeley Immanuel Kant Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was a French philosopher. He is named "The Father of Modern Philosophy. Descartes concluded that he can be certain that he exists because he thinks. "Descartes defines "thought" as "what happens in me such that I am immediately conscious of it, insofar as I am conscious of it". Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher. Spinoza believed God exists and is abstract and impersonal. He argued that everything that exists in Nature.He identified nature with God. He denied that the Bible was inspired by God. Spinoza believed that there was only one substance. John Locke (1632-1704) was an empiricist, which means all knowledge of the world from what the senses tell us. he tried to clarify two questions: where do we get our ideas from and can we rely on what our senses tell us. Locke distinguished between what he called 'primary' and 'secondary' qualities. When he says primary qualities he means extension, weight, motion, and number, and so on. By secondary qualities he meant sweet, or sour, green, or red, hot, or cold. Locke believed that it was inherent in human reason to be able to know that God exist. he was also preoccupied with equality in sexes. David Hume (1711-1776) stands out as the most important of the empiricist. His main work was A Treatise of Human Nature, which was published when Hume was twenty-eight years old. As a philosopher he thought in a very different way, he had a strong feeling for the way children experienced life. Hume emphasizes that both an impression and an idea can be either simple or complex. he believed that all knowledge comes from experience and that the mind contains nothing but a collection of perceptions, that all events are viewed and interpreted through the sensetions of the mind. George Berkeley (1685-1753) was an Irish bishop and a philosophers as well. Berkeley felt that philosophies and science were threatening the christian way of life. he believed that the only things that exist are those that we perceive. He believed that all our ideas were beyond our conscious, and this cause is spiritual. Berkeley said "Everything we see and fell is an effect of God's power." Berkeley believed that we exist only in the mind of God. Berkeley said that all we can know is that we are spirit. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a professor of philosophy. He thought rationalist and empiricists were right and also wrong. He thought the rationalists went too far in their claims as how much reason can contribute, and and the empiricists placed to much emphasis on sensory experience. Kant believed that there are certain conditions in the human mind that are contributive to our conceptions of the world. Kant said that things also conform to the mind, and he called this the Copernican Revolution in the problem of human knowledge. Kant's greatest contribution is the dividing line he draws between things in themselves and things as they appear to us. Kant believed that there are clear limits to what we can know. Karl Marx Soren Kierkegaard Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Montesquieu Voltaire Jean-Jacques Rousseau Karl Marx (1818-1883) believed that food, shelter,water,health,oxygen, being equally shared to all people. Redistribution is a system to give to all those that are in need. He is also considered one of the greatest economists in history. He published numerous books during his lifetime.Marx assumed that human history involves transforming human nature, which encompasses both human beings and material objects.[ Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a Danish philosopher and a religious author. He wrote critical texts of philosophy of religion. He is considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Most of his philosophical work was about how one lives as a "single individual", giving priority to human reality, and abstract thinking, and the importance of of personal choice and commitment. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was a German philosophy. His history and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy. He believed that ideas worked themselves out dialectically through history. Montesquieu (1689-1755) was a French social commentator and political thinker. Montesquieu is famous for the idea of separation of powers. He is mostly responsible for the popularization of the terms feudalism and Byzantine Empire. Voltaire (1694-1778) was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher. He is famous for his attacks on the catholic church and for the defense on Freedom of Religion, Freedom of Expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire considered himself a deist. His beliefs on the Bible were mixed. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of 18Th-century Romanticism of French expression. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution. Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas. He believed all men were equal. He dismissed the social norm of social class system, and provided new ideology within society.
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