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9 Steps in Writing a Research Paper
Transcript of 9 Steps in Writing a Research Paper
Step 1: Topic
Sometimes you will be able to choose your topic, and sometimes a topic will be given to you.
Make sure you thoroughly understand the assignment, what is being asked of you, what you are researching, and how you will be expected to do it, including any due dates.
Step 5: Research
Search for information
Analyze the information you find
Step 8: Synthesis (Putting it all together)
Review your topic in relation to your notes and gathered information. Does it make sense? Did you follow the instructions?
Review your research questions. Did you answer
each of them? Is the information true and accurate?
Use your outline and your notes to help you.
Goal: Final Draft
Once you have revised
and edited your work, it
is time to write your final draft – then submit
Step 2: Brainstorm
Consider what you already know, what you have already learned, and what you need to learn.
Use graphic organizers to get the information in your head, onto paper.
A. KWL Chart or KWS Chart
C. Idea Wheel
D. Cluster/Word Web
E. Multiple Column Chart
Lets take a look and practice!
Step 7: Cite your Sources –
IT’S THE LAW!
To avoid plagiarism, give credit to the source of your information:
Book - list the title and the author of the book.
Article - list the author of the article and where you found the article (like in an encyclopedia, magazine, or newspaper)
Web site - list the author (if the name is available), the website name, and the URL (web address).
Keep track of all the sources from which you gather information. At the end of your essay, paper, project, etc…, you will create a “Bibliography” (a.k.a. Reference Page), where you will list all of your sources.
A useful tool for keeping track of your sources during the research stage is an ISP Chart (Info, Source, Page).
Step 3: Developing Questions to research
Create some questions to help focus your research.
For example, which of the following do you think will provide more specific results…
A. Google: Climate in Canada OR
B. Google: What is the average temperature in Ontario Canada during the summer?
Step 4: Identify Your Sources
Resources can include:
Internet (remember our lesson on legitimate websites!)
Interview someone with knowledge on your topic
Make sure that you have a clear understanding of the sources that you are allowed to use and those that you are not allowed to use.
Step 6: Create an Outline
An outline is used to organize your notes from your research.
Use your questions as main points and add a small amount of information (not full sentences) as sub points.
You can use your outline while you are doing your research and you can add information as you go along.
Lets Take a look!
What is a Research Report?
Similar to a book report in that you need to read information and then report your findings.
It is different because with a research report, we use multiple sources to find information about a specific topic.
Five Important Reasons to Take Notes
Taking notes triggers basic brain processes and helps you to remember information.
Taking notes helps you to concentrate in class.
Notes help you prepare for tests.
Notes can be
a valuable source of
important information. If
your teacher says, “take notes” or “you may want to note this”, TAKE THE HINT, and write it
in your notes, because there
is a good possibility that it
will be on a test!!
may sometimes include information that is not in your textbook or on a worksheet, but may
be on a test.
Guidelines for Note-Taking
Concentrate on what your teacher is saying
Take notes consistently throughout the entire lesson.
Do NOT try to write
every single word that is said.
Focus on the main points.
There are always clues when an important point is being made. If your teacher pauses before or after an idea, repeats or emphasizes a point, or
writes an idea on the board, then
you should probably make
a note of it!
what is said in your
The physical act of
rephrasing & rewriting information can help
imprint it onto your
Organize notes neatly
and in some sort of logical
format. Write legibly. Notes are
useless if you cannot read them later!
When you copy
information, EVEN if you
are putting it into your own words, you must cite the source from which you gathered your information.
If you do not, it is
stealing and it is
against the law!
If you go to your friend’s house and take his/her video game without asking, and then pretend that it
is yours; that is
words from any
written source, and pretending that it
is yours, is also stealing.
students have been expelled from school for plagiarism.
caught plagiarizing, at the very least,
will fail their assignments.
After you complete your
rough draft, check for...
Do you have a clear beginning (first paragraph), middle, and end (conclusion)?
Does my beginning
grab my readers’ interest? Will they
want to read
Have I put my
facts and ideas in
an order that
Do all of my ideas relate to my topic?
Does my conclusion summarize or wrap up my message?
Step 9: Revise and Edit
Now it is time to read through and revise your writing for organization and sentence structure.
Have a peer, parent, or teacher review your writing,
mark any errors, and offer suggestions on improving
Now it is time to fix all of the errors in your writing.
What is an ISP Chart? Let's take a look!
remember something if
don't learn it, and you can’t
learn something, if you don’t pay attention. It takes about eight seconds of intense focus to process a piece of information into your memory. If you allow yourself to be distracted, you have less of
a chance of learning (Smith & Robinson, 2013).
Create or use graphic organizers:
KWL Chart or KWS Chart
Multiple Column Chart
Make an outline
one more thing...
we know how to do a research report...
we do with
this new knowledge???
You guessed it...
The language of Canada is English, or
is it French... hmmmm… what I can tell you, is that is it controversial: the bilingual debate has been going on for over 200 years, and it continues today. Citizens of Quebec, also known as francophones, speak French, while all other areas of Canada speak English. Clearly, Canada’s bilingual policies are in need of some attention to once and for all squash this 200+ year controversy.
Sample "hook" introduction...
What does that mean?
To examine carefully and
in detail so as to identify causes, key factors,
possible results, etc.
Identify and note details.
What do you notice first?
Find something small but interesting.
What do you notice that you didn’t expect? What do you notice that you can’t explain?
What do you notice now that
you did not notice
Generate and test hypotheses
about the source. Think critically.
Where do you think this came from? Why do you think somebody made this? Why is this important? Do you think this item is important? If it was done today, what would be different? What can you learn from examining this?
Ask questions to lead to
more observations and reflections.
What do you wonder about...
who? · what? · when? ·
where? · why?