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South Wirral High School-The American West
Transcript of South Wirral High School-The American West
From around 30000 BC to 1492 AD only Native Americans lived in North America
Between 1492 and 1840 Europeans settled on the East coast
From 1800 the US government started to buy or fight for more land
The Great Plains
The Great Plains were also called the 'Great American Desert'. This is because many believed the area to be uninhabitable because of its harsh conditions
So why did the Native Americans move to the Great Plains?
Better- armed settlers in the East pushed the Sioux West
New settlers brought diseases with them
The plains were empty of other people but full of buffalo
Before setting out to hunt, Plains Indians would hold a ceremonial Buffalo Dance which could last for many days. They would dress as buffalo and copy their movements. The dance was used to call upon the spirit world for help in their hunting and call the buffalo herd closer to them.
The Sun Dance
Attitudes to Land
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
1. Where in the US did Europeans originally settle?
2. Why were the Great Plains called the Great American Desert?
3. List 3 reasons why the Native Americans moved to the Great Plains.
4. How were the buffalo hunted?
5. Why did Native Americans perform the buffalo dance?
6. List 5 uses for the buffalo
7. How did the tipi adapt to life on the plains?
8. What were the different roles of men and women?
9. What was the role of the council within the tribe?
10. How did Plains Indians fight?
11. What does 'counting coup' mean?
12. What was the purpose of the sun dance?
13. What do you think the Europeans would have said about the Sun Dance?
14. How might Native American attitudes towards land clash with the settlers?
The Pioneers move West
Cattle men and Cowboys
Fate of the Plains Indians
Law and Order
Hunting the Buffalo
Before they used horses, Plains Indians hunted buffalo in 2 ways.
Method 1: Warriors crept up on grazing buffalo and shot them with arrows. Sometimes they would disguise themselves as wolves
Method 2: Buffalo jumps which trapped the herd in narrow valleys or drove them over cliffs. See following clip.
Once they had horses, Plains Indians were able to kill greater numbers of buffalo. When the hunt began, the warriors would surround or stampede the buffalo and kill them by firing arrows at the running animals. Each warrior marked his arrows so that that the buffalo he killed could be identified. Hunting the buffalo was dangerous for both the hunter and his horse.
Using the Buffalo
The tipi was the home of each Indian family.
It was made of ten to twenty buffalo skins
sewn together and supported by a frame of
wooden poles arranged in a circle.
The tipi worked well on the plains because-
1. It took 10 minutes to be taken down and packed for transport- good for moving near buffalo herds
2. At the top of the tipi there were 2 flaps which could be moved to direct the wind so that the smoke from the fire inside could escape.
3. In the Summer the tipi bottom could be rolled up to let air in. In Winter it could be banked with earth to keep the tipi warm
4. The tipi's conical shape made it strong enough to resist the strong winds on the plains
Men and Women
Within the family there were different roles for men and women, Men were warriors hunters and horsemen while women looked after the tipi, food and clothing. Arranged marriages sometimes took place but most marriages were love matches. When married men went to live with their wife's family. There were often more women than men because of the dangers of hunting and warfare. Polygamy was a way of making sure all of the women were cared for and that each band had plenty of children
Children did not go to school but learnt skills from their parents and relatives. Boys were taught how to hunt while girls were taught how to look after the home. Native Americans were very fond of their children and never punished them except in extreme cases.
Old people were seen as important as they gave advice and passed on the history of the tribe. They also helped to bring up the children, however when they were too old and weak they might have to be left behind.
Chiefs were not elected, nor did they inherit power. Men became chiefs because of their wisdom, skills as hunters, warriors and their spiritual power.
Important decisions were made by the
council. The council would keep talking
until everyone agreed. Smoke from a
ceremonial pipe was thought to go to the
spirit world and help make the right
Plains Indian warfare involved a series of raids by small groups of warriors. They went on these raids for a number of reasons: to steal horses, to seek revenge or to destroy their enemies. They did not want to conquer land in the way that the settlers did later on. Plains Indians did not believe that anyone could own land. Wars happened in the summer, when the Plains Indians had built up their food supplies by hunting buffalo. Later, wars were fought to defend the Plains Indians' way of life against settlers.
Why did individual warriors fight?
- an opportunity to prove their bravery and to gain personal glory
- might enable them to enter a warrior society or to gain a wife
- by capturing horses and weapons they could also become wealthy
- for chiefs like Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, it was a way of testing their spiritual power, their 'medicine', and to increase their standing in the tribe.
War was made into a ritual with the idea of 'counting coup.' It was considered braver to touch an enemy, to count coup, than to kill him.
Why did Plains Indians take scalps?
Plains Indians took scalps as evidence of their successes in battle. The scalps were dried and hung as trophies outside their tipis. They were also used to decorate their war gear- shirts, lances and shields. The Plains indians believed that if a warrior lost his scalp he could not go into the afterlife. So you scalped your enemy so that he would not be there to fight you in the afterlife. Plains Indians also wore eagle feathers, marked in various ways, to show their success in warfare.
Dances and ceremonies were used when the whole tribe needed to contact the spirits. The most famous ceremony was the sun dance. The Sun Dance was used to get help or guidance from the spirit world. Sitting Bull had taken part in one for four days before his great vision of victory came. He had hoped for guidance from the spirit world in his war against the US army. On other occasions individuals might dance the Sun Dance to get help from the spirit world, perhaps for someone who was ill in their family.
Plains Indians believed that land could not be owned
They believed that the earth and the life that lived there were sacred
These attitudes were passed on through generations
Why did people move West?
Many in the US believed that their government and way of life was the perfect example for others to follow. It must therefore be the God-given duty of the US to spread these blessings across America. Anyone carrying it out was doing God's will, and anyone who opposed it was a traitor to the US and God.
Why did people move West?
-People escaping from overcrowding in the east
-Poorer people escaping poverty in the east
-People escaping persecution
-Miners hoping to find gold
-Trappers attracted by the large numbers of animals
-Cattlemen using the grass for their cattle
-People seeking new opportunities in the west
Mountain Men/ Trappers
The fur trade flourished from the 1820's to the 1840's
They roamed the Rocky Mountains, trapping beavers and hunting other animals for their fur
In 1823, Jed Smith found the important South Pass route through the Rockies. Wagons could now travel not just from St. Louis to the Rockies, but
Once a year, from 1825 to 1840, all of the trappers gathered at an agreed spot to trade this year's catch. This was called the rendezvous.
Mountain men would meet merchants and tell them about the fertile lands of the West- eventually this would get back to the east.
Often, the mountain men would squander their earnings on drink and gambling.
The Journey West
In the 1840's, thousands of men, women and children moved West to Oregon and California.
Preparing for the journey
The journey usually took over 6 months, so pioneers had to prepare carefully.
Pioneers would usually begin their journey around April to avoid the harsh Winter months
They needed a strong covered wagon, some oxen, and enough equipment and supplies to last the journey.
Many joined others to become part of a larger wagon train
The Journey West
The Journey West
The Donner Party
On April 14, 1846, the group embarked on a 2,500-mile journey from Illinois, to San Francisco, but, because of bad timing, terrible advice and even worse weather, only a fraction of them reached their final destination. The Donner Party has become legendary because of the extremity of the situation and also because of what the group did to survive a hellish winter in the Sierra Nevada mountains. As food became more and more scarce, and as members of the group began dying from starvation and illness, the rest of the party resorted to cannibalism as a means of survival.
Test your knowledge
1. Explain the idea of Manifest Destiny
2. List 3 reasons why people moved west
3. Who were the Mountain men?
4. What was the rendezvous?
5. How long would it usually take to make the journey West?
6. What geographical hazards would travelers face?
7. List 3 things travelers would need
8. What other problems could the pioneers face on their journey?
9. Why did the Donner Party's journey go so wrong?
Read through the geographical hazards travelers would face
From 1848 huge numbers of people ‘went west’ to get rich = mine for precious metals like gold, silver and copper
Types of Mining
Panning- A pan is used to collect the grit. It is then gently shaken so that the gold sinks to the bottom of the pan.
Cradling- an oblong box was mounted on rockers. Dirt was shovelled in at one end and water was poured in. The cradle was rocked until the dirt was washed away, leaving the heavier gold.
Hydraulic Mining- Hydraulic mining involves high pressure water. The water is sprayed at an area of rock and/or gravel and the water breaks the rock up, dislodging any gold.
Deep Mining- by 1852 the surface gold in California had gone. The gold that was left had to be reached by deep shafts or blasted out of the hillside. Big machinery was needed.
Good and Bad effects of Mining
2 (a) Why were dances important to the Plains Indians? (4 marks)
1 (a) What do Sources A and B suggest about the Plains Indians’ attitude to the land?
1 (b) What different attitude to the land is suggested by Sources C and D? Explain your answer using Sources A, B, C and D.
1 (c) Why do you think Sources A and B have a different attitude to Sources C and D? Explain your answer using Sources A, B, C and D
and your knowledge.
1 (d) How useful is Source E for understanding the attitude of white people to the Plains Indians? Explain your answer using Source E and your knowledge.
1 (e) Why were the Plains Indians so well suited to living on the Great Plains?
1 (d) How useful is Source E for understanding why white people went west?
Explain your answer using Source E and your knowledge. (2012)
3 (a) Why were Mountain Men important? (2011)
3 (b) Using Source G and your knowledge, explain why the journey west was a dangerous
and difficult one for white people. (2011)
Test your Knowledge
1. Name 3 mining sites
2. When did people start moving West to mine?
3. Describe panning
4. Describe cradling
5. Describe hydraulic mining
6. Describe deep mining
7. Why did racism become an issue?
8. What were living conditions like in mining
9. What positive effects did mining have?
Brief History of the Mormons
Palmyra, New York
Unlike other groups who moved West, the Mormons weren't pulled by the idea of 'manifest destiny' or money. They were looking to escape.
How did the Mormon church begin?
Their official name was The Church of the Latter Day Saints
The founder was Joseph Smith
Smith claimed in 1823 that he had seen a vision of an angel called Moroni
Smith said that Moroni told him to find some gold plates hidden in a hillside in Palmyra, New York State.
He then had to keep the plates hidden for 4 years
After 4 years, Smith translated the inscriptions and wrote them in the Book of Mormon which was published in 1830.
Only 11 witnesses were allowed to see the plates
Kirtland, Ohio 1831-1837
In just a year after the publication of the Book of Mormon, Joseph Smith had made over a thousand converts.
Missionaries travelled across America and to Britain to try and convert more
Smith wanted to build a Holy City or Zion (City of God)
However, everywhere the Mormons went they were persecuted
Smith chose Kirtland in 1831
They built a temple and their numbers grew
Smith even founded a bank used by both mormons and non-mormons
However, non- Mormons felt outnumbered
In 1837 during a financial crisis the bank collapsed- this angered everybody but especially the non-Mormons
smith and the Mormon community were driven out
Independence, Missouri 1837-1838
The Mormons were unwelcome from the beginning
Disliked because of- a) religious differences b) authorities were suspicious of the Mormon leaders who believed in the communal ownership of property c)many Mormons opposed slavery and upset slave-owners
Violence broke out and increased, especially as the non- Mormon communities knew the Mormons had formed a sort of secret police force called the Danites
Non- Mormons were worried that the Danites were planning to win the support of Indian tribes
Mormon leaders were imprisoned but the rest were led to Illinois by Brigham Young
Nauvoo, Illinois 1839-1846
Smith was released from prison and began to build his 'holy city'
It was named Nauvoo and was based around the existing town of Commerce
Smith was determined to make this settlement work
He obtained a charter from the state government of Illinois which allowed them to have their own army and make their own laws
They therefore created a state within a state
At first they were successful- 2 rival political parties wanted Mormon support
By 1842 the army was 2000 strong
Non-Mormons became alarmed
Some Americans felt like the Mormons were trying to take over the USA- especially when Joseph Smith said he was going to run for President
In June 1844 Smith was imprisoned for ordering the destruction of a printing press
On 27th June the jail was attacked by non-Mormons and Smith was killed
So why were the Mormons so hated?
They converted huge numbers quickly
Their practice of polygamy
The close relationship between the leader of the church and politics- non-Mormons felt threatened by this power
They believed that they had been especially chosen by God and called non-Mormons 'gentiles'
They were hard-working and prosperous, which was often resented by others
Mormon settlements 1830-1846
The movement could have ended after the death of Joseph Smith in June 1844.
Mormons were leaderless and divided over the issue of polygamy
However, Brigham Young took over as leader of the remaining 15,000 Mormons
Brigham Young agreed that there was no future for the Mormons within the USA
Young chose the Great Salt Lake between the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada, an area considered an uninhabitable desert
He had to organise the mass movement of 15,000 men women and children approx. 2,250 km
In 1845 they began to prepare for the dangerous and difficult journey
In 1846 hostilities broke out and they were attacked by non-Mormons
The advance party left ahead of schedule
Young's plan was to establish a camp on the banks of the Missouri River and plant crops to support the rest through Winter.
By the time the first group reached the camp called Winter Quarters, many were suffering from disease or exhaustion. Some even died.
Young then organised the journey
He divided the families into groups of a hundred and then sub-divided them into fifties and tens, with each ten led by a captain
The daily routine was very strict
If anyone disobeyed they would be punished
Salt Lake City
Young had shown himself to be an effective leader on the journey, but he showed his true skills in the establishment of Salt Lake City.
When the Mormons arrived, they just saw a desolate wilderness
In the first months many died of cold and hunger, and grasshoppers devoured the crops
These issues were recurring
Every aspect of their lives were governed and dictated by the Church and its leaders
Young knew that the future of the Mormons depended on the size of its population its ability to be completely self-sufficient
He encouraged converts from across Europe and the USA.
A Perpetual Emigration Fund was set up to help them.
Many of these emigrants had useful skills in manufacturing
Salt Lake City
Young decided there would be no private ownership of land or water
The Church assigned farm land to people according to their needs
Young also tried to expand their economy by-
setting up supply depots and workshops for travellers (particularly miners) could stock and repair
He charged tolls to cross Mormon territory
When the railroad was constructed, Young negotiated with the Union Pacific Railroad Company for the railroad to pass north and south of Salt Lake City. This helped the development of trade.
Young planned to establish an independent Mormon state called Deseret
In 1848, the Salt Lake Valley was part of the land handed over from Mexico to the USA
The USA decided to make the area a state rather than a territory, named Utah
Although Young was Utah's first governor, ultimately they were subject to the laws of the USA
Mountain Meadow Massacre
The Mormons ignored the laws of the USA and continued to live by their own laws
Young used the Danites, his secret association, to remove opposition from outside and within the Mormon ranks
In 1857 the US government responded by sending its own governor, along with troops to protect him- war seemed possible
140 emigrants passed through Utah
They shouted abuse at a group Indians who had become Mormons, so the Indians attacked them
7 emigrants were killed, the Indians then went to the Mormons for help
The Mormons decided that every emigrant must be killed to prevent news of the killings getting out
The news got out and the Mormons were blamed
The US government sent more troops, pushing many Mormons to flee in fear
The Mormons were then seen sympathetically in the press
In April 1858 the US government offered the Mormons a full pardon if they accepted the authority of the US government, and a non-Mormon governor would be appointed
The Mormons agreed
The US government still disagreed with the practice of polygamy. In 1890 the Mormons finally abandoned polygamy and Utah was allowed to become a state within the USA.
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
1. What was the official name of the Mormon Church?
2. What was the name of the founder?
3. What was the significance of the golden plates?
4. List 3 Mormon beliefs/ practices
5. Where did the Mormons move in 1831?
6. What were they trying to establish?
7. Why were the Mormons driven out?
8. Was the situation better in Missouri?
9. When did they move to Nauvoo, Illinois?
10. What did the charter from the US government allow them to do?
11. Why did success soon turn to failure in Nauvoo?
12. List 3 reasons why the Mormons were hated
13. Why did Brigham Young decide to move the Mormons to Salt Lake City?
14. How did Brigham Young organise the journey?
15. Why was the Mormon settlement in Salt lake City so successful?
16. What was Deseret?
17. Who were the Danites?
18. What happened in the Mountain Meadow Massacre?
What did the Mormons believe?
1 (a) What do Sources A and B suggest about the Mormons? (2012)
1 (b) What different view of the Mormons is suggested by Sources C and D? Explain your answer using Sources A, B, C and D. (2012)
1 (c) Why do you think Sources A and B have a different view to Sources C and D? Explain your answer using Sources A, B, C and D and your knowledge. (2012)
3(a) Why was Joseph Smith important? (Specimen)
3(b) Study Source G in the Sources Booklet. Using Source G and your knowledge, explain why Mormon beliefs and actions often caused conflict with non-Mormons between 1830 and 1844. (Specimen)
3(c) How important was the leadership of Brigham Young in both leading the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake and then settling there? (Specimen)
The Cattle Trade
By the 1850's Texas was a major centre for cattle ranching
The cattle were Texas Longhorn which could survive on the dry grassland- the meat was not the best quality but was good enough to sell
During the Civil War (1861-65), many Texans went away to fight and left the longhorns.
When they came back, their numbers had increased dramatically
There were so many longhorns that you could not get a good price
The solution was to drive the cattle to northern cities like Chicago where they could charge more- these trips were called cattle drives
Joseph McCoy took advantage of the development of cattle drives
He created the town of Abilene in 1867 by buying land, building stock pens and advertising the town as a shipping point
The cattle were shipped from Texas to Abilene and then shipped east on the railroad for slaughter and sale
There were great profits to be made from this- an animal worth $5 in Texas could be sold for 10 times that amount in Abilene
New towns such as Dodge City then developed and between 1867-85 nearly 4 million cattle were passed through cow towns
The cattle drives took place in Summer. The cattle would be driven from Texas to the cow towns for sale
Although there were great profits to be made, there were great hazards to overcome
As well as natural hazards, danger also came from the Indians. Oliver Loving, Charles Goodnight's partner, died in 1867 after a Comanche attack