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A brief look at British history
Transcript of A brief look at British history
Settled in the British Isles between the 6th and the 3rd centuries BC.
They spoke Gaelic, which we can still see traces of in Wales, Ireland and Scotland.
The Romans invaded Britain in AD 43,
and drove many of the Celtic tribes into Wales, Scotland
They set up their capital Londinium and
built major cities: Bath, Chester and York.
They spoke Latin.
The Anglo-Saxon invasion began after the Romans left,
around AD 450.
The Angles, Saxons and Jutes came from present day Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany.
The Vikings started plundering and raiding around 793
They settled down in various places
Influenced the language: ugly, knife, they, window
In 1066, the Viking age in Britain came to a definite end
when Harold II beat the Norwegian king, Harald Hardraade, at Stamford bridge.
The French duke William of Normandy beat the English
at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
William the Conqueror soon established a Norman state.
French became the dominant language and the English were suppressed.
King Henry VIII
Broke with the Pope in Rome in 1535 to marry his new wife.
Established the Protestant Church of England with himself as the supreme leader.
Had six wives; divorced two, had two executed, one died in childbirth and the last one outlived him.
Daughter of Henry VIII and Ann Boleyn
Queen for 45 years
One of the greatest monarchs in British history
Built to keep barbarians out and for
- and to demonstrate the power of Rome
The first inhabitants
The British Isles have been inhabitated since the for thousands of years. We don't know much about these early inhabitants except from what we learn from studying what they left behind.
Built around 500 years ago
Queen Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
"The virgin queen"
Reigned while England beat the Spanish Armada and started their vast empire.
The British Empire (1607-1997)
It started with the settlements in America
Virginia was named after Queen Elizabeth I in 1607
The Empire reached its peak in 1921 when it controlled 1/4 of the world's population and landmass.
The process of dismantlement began after WWII
The return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked the end of the British Empire
The industrial revolution
Mid 18th century - early 19th century
Migration from countryside to cities
Advancements in iron production and machinery
Better roads, railroads
Exporting goods abroad
Hazardous work conditions in the factories
The world wars
The Great War, 1914-1918
Modern artillery, machine guns and tanks
2 million Brits dead, 750 000 wounded
American troops in France helped win the war
Germany was severely punished -
leading to the next war
Started as a political struggle over the power balance in Europe
When Germany attacked Czechoslovakia, Britain promised to support Poland in case of attack
1st September 1939 Germany invaded Poland
During the war Britain was not invaded, but a lot of cities suffered heavy bombing
303 000 British soldiers and 60 000 civilians died