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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Transcript of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
First and foremost I would like to start off my presentation with an acknowledgment to country. I acknowledge the Traditional Owners of lands and waters throughout Australia and pays respect to Elders both past and present.
What is adhd?
In accordance to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (1997) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic mental health disorder where ones condition is affected by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentive behaviours. As highlighted by Charaten (as cited by Moore, Dupaul and White, 2006) ADHD is the most prevalent diagnosed behavioural disorder in childhood. From these characteristics it impacts one’s life in terms of social impairments in different settings such as home, school and work place.
impact with in the classroom
Through the findings as shown by Currie & Stabile, 2006; Rabiner & Coie, 2000 (as cited in Martinussen et al., 2006) children diagnosed with ADHD have been identified as being at high risk of poor academic outcomes, school attainment and are more likely to repeat a grade,as further discussed by DuPaul, Weyandt and Janusis, 2011. If a child has weakness in working memory as further discussed by Martinussen et al., 2006 it often indicates that they have troubles to follow simple directions accurately, complete multi-step task. Resulting in lack of comprehension, both spoken and oral language, organisation and other academic domains. You as a teacher also play a very important role in terms of the impact you have on the class as a whole and that child with ADHD as mentioned by Hamre and Pianta (as cited in Martinussen et al., 2006) a negative relationship has found association with lower levels of student achievements. The choices you make in terms of how you approach and work with all children will impact your class as discussed by Hart, Massetti, Fabiano, Pariseau and Jr., 2011. It is part of your duties to be able facilitate for the needs in your class. There has been research to highlight the need for more support as teachers are finding it difficult and stressful to ensure all the needs of the students are being met as mentioned by Prosser, Reid, Shute and Atkinson 2002.
School commitment and collaboration
As teachers it is imperative that we familiarise ourselves with the characteristics of this disorder as discussed by Charaten (as cited in Moore et al., 2006) for, 3-7% of school age children are affected, that is about 1 to 2 students in each classroom as further supported by Faraone, Sergeant, Gillberg, and Biederman (as cited in Martinussen, Tannock, Chaban, McInnes & Fergvuson., 2006). Males being 3 times more likely to be diagnosed.
ADHD can look and affect each child and person very differently. Here are some key characteristics to give you an idea what ADHD may look like, as described by Carbone, 2001.
Over stimulated resulting in being fidgety.
Under stimulated resulting in restlessness such as squirming in seat or leaving their seat.
Preference in gross motor activities.
Signs of frustration when engaged in fine motor activities such as writing.
Instant response such as calling out, having no control.
Finds turn taking and waiting a challenge in different situations.
Outburst due to emotions.
Lack of outcomes during performance task such as test.
Difficulty in filtering unnecessary sensory information.
When over stimulated activity at hand doesn't capture their attention.
When insufficiently stimulated will seek different activity.
Forgetful, misplaces and loses own things.
Overwhelmed with materials with multiple pieces.
Difficulty in completing task within a given time frame.
Poor time management skills.
There is only so much a teacher can do, with the support and collaboration with the school, family and professional help, outcomes for the student is greater and more successful as identified by Pfiffner, Villodas, Kaiser, Rooney and McBurnett, 2013 and Moore et al., 2006. If all stakeholders have a common goal which is to ensure the student reaches their full potential open communication between all parties is a must and strategies should be universal. A great strategy that could be introduced in the self management plan as discussed by Moore et al., 2006 as a way to empower the student to take responsibility for their actions and interventions which also means the teacher doesn't feel pressure of controlling everything. As Pfiffner et al., 2013 highlights the positive role of improving the student's ability to be more organised through collaboration of teachers and parents, of learning strategies that promote engagement, motivation, self control, and daily living skills, making the learning relevant to the student. Ensuring that there is open communication between all parties the IEP that are developed the goals a more realistic and attainable. Meaning using the observations you have gathered with any knowledge such as if the child is being medicated and there is any changes in behaviour we can see if it is for the better or worse. With the help of the "Learn and Support Team (LST)", a plan can be developed to target and manage social, behavioural and academic interventions. Prosser et al., 2002.
Carbone, E. (2001). Arranging the classroom with and eye (and ear) to students with ADHD.
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Dupaul, G.J., Weyandt, L.L. & Janusis, G.M. (2011). ADHD in the classroom: Effective
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Gureasko-Moore, S., Dupaul, G.J. & White, G.P. (2006). The effects of self-management in
general education classrooms on the organizational skills of adolescents with ADHD.
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Hart, K.C., Massetti, G.M., Fabiano,G.A., Pariseau, M.E. & Pelham, Jr., W.E. (2011) Impact of
group size on classroom on-task behavior and work productivity in children with ADHD.
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Martinussen, R.L., Tannock, R., Chaban, P. Mclnnes, A. & Ferguson, B. (2006). Increasing
awareness and understanding of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in education to promote better academic outcomes for students with ADHD.
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Australian Journal of Education 46
To ensure that the support is given or to ask for support as a teacher you need to document the behaviours to see if there is a common factor that is causing any unwanted behaviour. You are the best person to know that child and advocate for their rights in terms what type of learning style is beatifically and positive for them. Once you have established a relationship if need be modify the task through individualised learning programs (ILP) as suggested by Hart et al., 2011.
Look at the classroom environment. Is it set up to facilitate and engage the students depending on their needs such as room for smaller group work task as discussed by Hart et al., 2011 there has been greater academic improvements and engagements in smaller groups.
Another strategy that can be implemented in the class is being consistent with rules, modifying task- start off with one task and once the student can cope with the time and task increase the steps and complexity, start small, to give them a sense of achievement. Placements of where the student sits and who they sit next to as further discussed by DuPaul et al., 2011 and Carbone, 2001 also impacts on the desired behaviour wanted.
Another way of building a positive relationship with the student is to negotiate and give them a choice in which task they would like to complete. From using this approach as mentioned by Martinussen et al., 2006, DuPaul et al., 2001, and Carbone, 2001 by giving them the responsibility of their learning they are more inclined to want to achieve and will stay focused on the task. Focus on the positives and achievements made as this will further encourage wanted behaviours. Also understand that the student may need a break discuss what they think would work for them. For example if they feel that they are about to explode walk out of the classroom take deep breath and when they are ready to come back in they can. Give them the skills to be able to monitor their own behaviour and regulate. Once they have calmed down talk about what happened, why did it happen, where to next also give feedback as this further instills the behaviour desired and helps the students to express how they are feeling and acknowledgment.