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The Haitian Revolution

One of the many revolutions in the Revolutionary Era, the Haitian Revolution led to the first free black republic in the western hemisphere.

Chris Mclean

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of The Haitian Revolution

The Haitian Revolution By: Chris Mclean
Stephen JeanPierre In it's prime, Haiti was the richest colony in the western hemisphere, quite possibly the whole world. This is because it produced one-third of France's foreign trade. Sugar, coffee, cocoa, indigo, tobacco, cotton, sisal, as well as fruits and vegetables, were all of Haiti's exports to France. Haiti's Social Structure: The Whites: 40,000 whites, mainly French.
They were divided into two groups:
Planters Petit Blancs (little whites) Owned plantations and many slaves
metropole (France)- imposed strict laws on the colony, allowing them to trade only with France.
By 1770, they were disenchanted with France and traded illegally with the United States.
Just like in the U.S., the planters wanted representation.
They wanted independence for Saint-Domingue, a slave nation governed by white males. Considerably less power than the Planters, they were the 'middle-under class' of white Saint-Domingue.
They were artisans, shop keepers, merchants, teachers, and held other similar jobs.
They had few slaves, but they weren't wealthy. Because of this, they were less independent minded and more loyal to France.
They saw free persons of color as economic/social competitors. The Blacks: 530,000+ blacks, mainly from Africa.
They were divided into two groups:
Free blacks (Gens de coleur/Maroons) Slaves 500,000 black slaves which outnumbered free people 10-1.
Especially cruel slave system in Saint-Domingue.
Owners imported large amounts of low quality dried fish to feed their slaves
Domestic Slaves:
100,000 worked as cooks, personal servants, and as artisans around the plantation manor or town.
Treated better than common field hands, which is most likely the reason they remained loyal to their owners and resisted entering the revolution immediately.
Field Hands:
400,000 worked in the fields all day long
Poorly fed, no medicinal care, no reading or writing.
Were treated worse than the animals, because it was easier to buy new slaves than preserve the lives of existing ones. Free Persons of Color:
30,000 in 1789, half of them were mulattoes.
Freed by their masters most often because of paternal guilt, and slaves avoided them.
The other half were black slaves who purchased their own freedom/given freedom.
Were richer than the whites and owned plantations, pro slavery and treated them horribly.
They had limited rights, and also wanted a free Saint-Domingue.
They wanted to be more white, denied their african roots, saw slaves as enemies, spoke French (not Creole), and dressed as Europeans. They wanted to set themselves above the slaves. Maroons:
Group of runaway slaves. Resided in the mountains in small villages, had subsistence farming, and kept African culture alive.
Bitterly anti-slavery, yet not willing to fight for their freedom, though they raided local plantations and defended themselves.
Tens of thousands of them before the Revolution of 1791, and two generals were maroons. Toussaint Louverature Francois-Dominique Toussaint (1744-1803)
He was called Louverture in 1791.
L'overature: The opening, or the one who created the opening in enemy lines. Dutty Boukman Boukman: Voodoo (Voudu) priest.

Organized slave revolt in which on August 1791, 12,000 slaves kill white settlers, burned homes, and destroyed plantations.
Boukman had military experience from Africa.

He died shortly after the rebellion ended. The French Revolution was one of the causes of the Haitian Revolution of 1791. "Exclusif": French term that forced 100% of Saint-Domingue's exports to France, and 100% off all their imports to only be from France.
Prices were made to favor France Saint-Domingue inhabitants didn't follow these rules very strictly because they made much more money selling molasses and their other products to America. Black and white planters united against "exclusif" Slave Rebellions The Mackendal Rebellion of 1759 was the most famous and successful revolutions prior to 1791.
Mackendal: Slave with a large knowledge of poisons (masters could not control poison).
Organized widespread plot to poison the water supplies of their masters and animals.
Hundreds of whites were killed until his secret was tortured out of a slave. Mackendal was put to death. Throughout the 18th century, prices of new slaves from Africa rose dramatically. Yet, the petit blancs remained outside this coalition. Maroons had no allies among whites or free people of color. Domestic slaves were loyal to their masters, most likely because they were treated well. Alliances White and Black planters also united.
Wealthy, supported independence and slavery
Did not want to give up traditional wealthy privileges White planters didn't want full rights for petit blancs (doomed alliance) Whites supported the red cockade (seen as pro-French) of the revolution French bureaucrats were painted with white cockades of the French monarchy. Petit blancs formed the Colonial Assembly at St. Marc

Planters formed Cape Francois at present day Cape Haitren Rich Saint Domingue mulatto- Vincent Oge Attempted to get the General Assembly in France to include citizenship for people of color, but failed
Returned to Saint-Domingue and formed a military band with Jean-Baptist Chavannes
Didn't want help of black slaves (thought of them as property)
In November, Oge's forces were badly defeated.
300 captured, Oge and Chevannes escaped to Santa Domingo, where they were turned over to the whites at Cape Francois Though it had little to do with the slaves, it caused further diversions between the slave owners, whites, colonial and metropolitan French groups and the free people of color.
Was one of the causes of the civil war that broke out in 1791, allowing Boukman to take advantage of the chaos and form a slave rebellion (more on this later) March 9, 1791: Captured soldiers were hanged and Oge and Chevannes were tortured to death in the public square. Chris Mclean

. Stephen JeanPierre

. Made by: The Revolution: Boukman's Part
Civil war broke out in May 1971 between gens de coleur and the whites
Boukman used this chaos to organize a slave revolt
He got 100,000 slaves into their ranks
Many were skilled warriors, could use their military experience from Africa
The Revolution: Toussaint's Part
Toussaint Louverture was a free man in 1776 (gens de coleur)
By 1797, he lead an army of 20,000 that controlled most of Saint-Domingue.
Created a constitution which granted rights & citizenship to all inhabitants
Napoleon sent 40,000 troops to restore order in 1802, and Toussaint died after being arrested and brought to France from maltreatment in his prison cell. Because of Yellow Fever plaguing the French army, remaining black generals defeated the French, with help from British and Spanish forces.
Independence Day is now January 1, 1804. Okay, that's it...we're done now. The Latin American revolutions are very similar to the Haitian Revolution.
Latin American Revolution had inspiration from the Haitian Revolution
They were geographically very close, both in tropical areas great for plantations
Both were conquered by European imperial countries. In addition, these revolutions had inspiration from the American Revolution and the French Revolution.
Majority of Latin American areas were conquered by the Spanish and the Portuguese. TRANSITION Y U NO HAVE 1
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