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The bodies response to long term exercise.

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Lydia Boland

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of The bodies response to long term exercise.

Lesson 1.
Musculosketal response to exercise.

Lesson 2.
Cardiovascular response to exercise.

Lesson 3.
Energy System response to exercise.

Lesson 4.
Respiratory response to exercise.

To understand all areas of the long term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system.

To be able to relatate myoglobin and mitochondria as long term effects of exercise.

Describe and name all or as many long term effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system as possible.
Learning Objectives
Tendons are what connect our muscles to our bones; they are strong bands of connective tissue which are able to cope with a massive amount of pressure being put on them. Whenever exercise is done for a long period of time the muscles will grow and become stronger, therefore in order for the tendons to cope with this change they also increase in size and strength Increased tendon strength during exercise occurs due to the tendons adapting and becoming stronger in order to deal with the increased forces put on them by the body.
Increased Tendon Strength
Increased Lactic Tolerance
Lactic acid tolerance is increased when working anaerobically, the athlete must endure high levels of lactic acid in order for the muscles to adapt this will help them to withstand high levels in the future. The body can also adapt its systems allowing it to clear lactic acid quicker and regulate levels.
Muscle Hypertrophy and increased strength.
Hypertrophy is the increase of muscle fibre; a hypertrophied muscle has a higher capability of exerting greater strength. Whenever someone takes part in weight training it will have a massive effect on the muscles and the tendons, this is because the muscle fibers inside of them will tear when you are using weights. Muscle fibers will be repaired using proteins which the athlete gets from food and supplements. Whenever muscles fibers get repaired like this they will become larger and stronger than they were before in an attempt to prevent the muscles from getting torn again. This process is hypertrophy and can be stimulated by the exercise being done and occurs as a result of physical exercise.
Question 1)
What connects our muscles to our bones within our body?

Question 2)
When is lactic acid tolerance increased and why does it have to adapt?

EXPLAIN the process of hypertrophy...
T A S K...
Increase in Bone calcium Stores.
Physical demands that are placed on bones make them stronger, when these demands are placed bone calcium stores increase in order to cope with this demand. The bone calcium stores are the amount of calcium that is stored within your body. Exercising is good for your bones as it reduces the risk of osteoporosis, a disease where bones become weak and brittle.
Increase Number of Mitochondria.
Mitochondria can be found in large numbers in most cells around our bodies, they are the site in which the process of respiration and energy production occur.
When exercise is performed regularly over a long period of time our muscles will increase their oxidative capacity to adapt to the increase in exercise.
One of the ways the muscles do this is by increasing the number of mitochondria, if this increases their will be more room for the body to produce ATP (glucose and oxygen combination) therefore giving more energy soure for exercise
Increase in Myoglobin stores
Myoglobin function is too carry oxygen from cell the membrane all the way to the mitochondria. Whenever aerobic exercise takes place their will be an increase in myoglobin, this is because over a long period of time your body will adapt itself so that when you are exercising you receiver more oxygen so that you can go on for longer, the way the body does this is by increasing myglobin stores which will allow them to carry more oxygen. Therefore when you are taking part in aerobic exercise your body will be able to deliver more oxygen to the working muscles more efficiently.
Thickness of Hyaline Cartilage.
Another response is the increase of the thickness of the hyaline cartilages, this kind of cartilage is the most common type of cartilage in your body. This protects the ends of your bone from wear and tear. over a long period of time the cartilage will become thicker as it needs to becomes a better shock absorber, this will therefore decrease the chances of an injury during any physical activity as they can take more pressure.
Increased production of synovial fluid.
Synovial fluid is a viscous fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints.A response to long term exercise will be to increase the production of synovial fluid, this is because synovial fluid acts as a lubricant which helps the joints and cartilages to move around without any damage, this means that due to having more of it you will be able to carry out a exercise which is heavy on movement for a longer period of time as the joints and cartilages will be lubricated which will reduce the risks of any sports injuries.
Increase stretch of ligaments
A ligament is a short band of tough, flexible, connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages. Our ligaments stretch due to long periods of exercise because more collagen is produced which supports body tissue, collagen will make the ligaments more stable, stronger and more flexible at the joints, . Ligaments will need to adapt in this way because long term exercise will put great force and stress on the ligaments which could be damaged easily if not strengthened. Athletes have more pliable ligaments because they are constantly trained stretched and used which makes them more flexible.
Learning Objectives
Cardiac Hypertrophy
Cardiac hypertrophy is the thickening of the hearts muscle. Whenever the heart is used like any other muscle in the body it will expand in size, meaning it will increase both oxygen capacity and blood volume.

This increase in size means that more oxygen can be stored in order to be sent round the muscles during exercise also the heart will be able to pump more blood around the body per beat. This will benefit and ATHLETE because they will have the more blood getting to the working muscles, quicker.

increase in stroke volume.
When the size of the heart increases so doesn’t the blood capacity within, this means the stroke volume (how much blood is pumped out in one contraction) is increased.

This means the heart has to adapt and become more efficient in sending out more blood to the working muscles meaning oxygen can be delivered quicker. However this will only happen if exercise is done regularly and over a long period of time.
This benefits an athlete because they will be able to send higher amount of blood around the body meaning an increase in oxygen getting to the working muscles which is needed in order to maintain exercise.

Cardiac output will increase due to long term exercise and also the combination of increased heart rate and increased stroke volume. Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped round the body by the left ventricle in a minute. It can increase 5 to 7 times to allow more oxygen to get to the working muscles.
Having a higher cardiac output means that more blood is pumped around the body per minute which means more oxygen will be available to working muscles during exercise.

Increase in cardiac output
Decreased Resting heart rate.
After long term training your heart rate will decrease and it will get to its resting zone quicker. This reduce in the heart rate will put less stress on the heart as their will be less pressure to pump blood as quickly. The reason why your resting heart rate decreases after long term exercise is because your body starts to learn how to become more efficient at using oxygen, after a while the body will use less oxygen in order to provide energy to the working muscles.
A knock on effect of capilliarization is the bodys total volume of blood in circulation at any one time increases as a result of long term exercise. This represents an increase in the number of red blood cells and therefore haemoglobin sites for a greater amount of Oxygen , this therefore increases the rate of transport of Oxygen, allowing greater periods of time for exercise.
Increase In blood volume.
An adaptatition the body makes to long term exercise in the increase of quantity of capillaries surround the heart and muscles. This allows a greater transportation of oxygen and nutrients.A increase in the capillary network also means that the body will be able to get rid of carbon dioxide and lactic acid quicker.
Reduction in resting blood pressure.
When exercise is done for a long period of time your blood pressure will naturally decrease, this is because your body is able to cope with a lower resting blood pressure.

However a persons blood pressure will quickly increase again if exercise is not done on a regular basis. Having a lower blood pressure means that your arteries, organs and tissues are not being damaged as they would be if it was high meaning that they will be in better shape then someone with higher blood pressure.
lesson Objectives
lesson objectives
increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes.
increase use of fats as an energy source.
In the production of ATOP both aerobic and anaerobic enzymes are used as they break down fuel sources for energy an increase in the amount of these enzymes means that more ATP can be produced for thte athlete to use .
An increased amount of
anaerobic enzymes
means that you will have greater glucose breakdown, and more
aerobic enzymes
means that muscles tissue will have the ability to generate ATP. These chronic responses enhance the ability for a muscle to generate ATP, which is the body’s first source of energy before going onto lactic acid system.
This enables aerobic exercise to be undertaken for prolonged periods of time.

This will benefit any kind of athlete as when you have a higher amount of aerobic enzymes you will be able to carry out a exercise for a longer duration and when you have more anaerobic enzymes you will be able to carry out a exercise at a higher intensity.
As we exercise regularly our body adapts, we become fitter and more able to cope with the demands of exercise.
Over 4 lessons we are going to look at what changes occur in the :
Muscular System
Cardiovascular System
Energy System
Respiratory System
Understand the changes to the energy system due to long term exercise.

Relate increase of aerobic and anaerobic enzymes to ATP production.

Explain all adaptations the energy system makes after long term exercise.
T a s k ...
Write /draw a spiderdiagram on what aspects of the respiratory system may change as a result of prelonged period of exercise.
Compare your answers and add to your spider.
Quick Question...

For Example
- an untrained students heart rate was measured while running on a treadmill.
After 6 weeks of training i would expect the students heart rate to ..

1) Tell me why?

2) Explain to me what changes would of occured
Fat oxidation increases after prolonged periods of exercise, this is because they are stored in large molecules which need to be broken down.Fats are used for endurance/aerobic based sports like long distance runs. When you exercise you use other fuel sources, when fats are needed they are oxidated for use. Whenever we carry out aerobic exercise we break down fats as a way to make energy because all other sources have been used.
Being able to store more fat will be a benefit for a endurance athletes (marathon runners) because fats are used to fuel the body when our glycogen levels are low.

This energy will help the athlete because when energy is low for a long and endurance sport like marathon running the fat level will provide enough energy to complete the activity.
t a s k ...
Design a poster detailing everything you have learnt in todays lesson.

You have 30 minutes...
Increased Vital
increase in minute ventilation
Increased strength of respiratory muscles
increase in oxygen diffusion rate
Vital capacity is the amount of air which can be expelled from the lungs after a deep breath. With long term exercise you are able to increase this amount. This increase means more oxygen is getting to the working muscles where more diffusion can occur.
is the volume of air bought into the lungs per minute.
At rest the average amount is 35 to 45 breaths
After long term exercise our bodies have to adapt and bring in more oxygen to lungs to get to the working muscles. As tidal volume and breathing rate increases so does minute ventilation as more breaths would be needed to meet the higher demand for oxygen.
The respiratory muscles include the
and the
intercostal muscles.
During long term exercise these muscles strengthen.
This results in larger respiratory volumes, which allows more Oxygen to be diffused into the blood which in turn gets to the working muscles.
Diffusion is the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide and this takes place in the alveoli, it occurs from a high pressure to a low pressure.

If there is an increase rate of diffusion this allows for more oxygen to be pushed around the body but also for more carbon dioxide to be removed from the body. This will help an athletes performance because their body will still create carbon dioxide but body will rid of it quicker, also there is more oxygen available so your body is able to exercise for longer periods of time.
Understand the areas/long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system.

The relationship between the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and improved performance.

Define the long term effects of exercise on the respiratory system (minute ventilation,vital capacity,oxygen diffusion rate)
Understand all areas and long term effects of the cardiovascular system.

The relationship between stroke volume and cardiac output.
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