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The Periodic Table
Transcript of The Periodic Table
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Alkaline earth metals
• Group II A (column 2) of the periodic table.
Angela, Nikki, Deanna and Inca
An Introduction to The Periodic Table
• There are 38 transition metals, which are found in groups 3-12 of the periodic table.
• A “transition metal" is described to be any element in the d-block of the periodic table.
• The f-block lanthanide and actinide series are also considered transition metals and are called "inner transition metals"
• Like all metals, they are ductile, malleable, hard, good conductors of electricity and heat.
• Transition metals have a partially filled d or f subshell when in any common oxidation state. Therefore, transition elements share a number of properties that are not found in other elements. These include:
compounds in many oxidation states, due to unpaired d electrons with a relatively low reactivity.
many paramagnetic compounds, due to the presence of unpaired d electrons.
The Periodic Table
• The columns on the periodic tables are known as ‘groups’ and the group number of an element corresponds to the number of valence electrons.
• The horizontal rows in the periodic table are known as ‘periods’ and the period number of an element corresponds to the number of electron shells.
• On the Table, metals are found on the left-hand-side, non-metals are found on the right-hand-side, and metalloids are arranged in a diagonal staircase patter between the metals and non-metals.
• There are 18 groups on the periodic table.
The Periodic Table is a table of elements arranged in order of atomic number, and according to similarities in properties.
• silvery, shiny, and relatively soft metals.
• fairly reactive under standard conditions.
• two outer valence electrons.
• only found in compounds and minerals in nature, not in elemental forms.
• react with halogens to form compounds called halides.
• react strongly with water, except beryllium.
• tend to form ionic bonds, except beryllium (forms covalent bonds).
Then what is metalloids?
Metalloids touch the metal/nonmetal line on the Periodic Table and have properties between those of metals and nonmetals.
Metalloids have mixed properties which are difficult to characterize.
• Noble Gases are the 18th group on the periodic table, they’re located on the far right of the periodic table.
• This group includes Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.
• All the Noble Gases, under normal conditions, are odourless, colorless gases which don’t react.
• They don’t react because their valence electron shell is ‘full’ and they are therefore very stable.
• The gases weren’t discovered until the late 1800s.
• Helium is used in balloons and airships. Neon is used in advertising signs. Argo, Krypton and Xenon are used in light bulbs. Radon is radioactive and can be used to detect leaks in pipes.
• fairly toxic.
• form acids when combined with hydrogen.
• readily combine with metals to form salts.
• seven valence electrons in their outer shell.
• highly reactive and electronegative.
• as diatomic molecules (two atoms) when in pure form.
• include five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
• Group VII A (column 17) of the periodic table.
Physical Properties of Metalloids:
Can be shiny or dull
Conductivity of heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as good as metals.
Solid at room temperature.
Chemical Properties of Metalloids:
To the right of the stairstep, elements gain electrons when bonding.
To the left of the stairstep, elements lose electrons when bonding
The alkali metals, found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA), are very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature
Let's start with the fun part shall we?
Ok. Now, first thing first.
Thank you for listening!
These metals have only one electron in their outer shell
They are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.
They are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals.
Alkali metals can explode if they are exposed to water.
Cesium and francium are the most reactive elements in this group
The Alkali Metals are: