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Introduction to Women's Studies

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Jessica Mine

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Introduction to Women's Studies

Background photo by t.shigesa To me, feminism means a better future for not only women but all people. I believe that in the future, more people will identify themselves as feminists. Because of this, more people will have a greater understanding that categories, such as gender, ethnicity, race, class, and sexual orientation, change over time and differ between societies and cultures. There will be a much greater acceptance of individuals as they are and people will not be defined by distinct, rigid categories but as individuals. The following are a few of my hopes of how feminism will change gender and, therefore, the world as a whole: It's important to view the world and situations from multiple perspectives because everyone cannot be sorted into distinct categories. All people are different and have their own particular point of view. However, society has tended to stereotype people into rigid groups based on gender, race, ethnicity, class, and religion. These constructed categories effect many aspects of life for people all over the world. Feminist Movements Future of Gender Gender Issues The Past, Present, & Future of Gender Gender issues effect many aspects of life for people all over the world. Those who recognize these gender issues are often only seeing the tip of the iceberg. Social constructions of gender permeate race, class, ethnicity, religion, and sexuality. These stereotypes about femininity and masculinity effect, but are not limited to, academics, work, media, violence, and health for all people. First Wave Second Wave Third Wave 1 2 3 Emancipation Proclamation
19th Amendment to U. S. Constitution
Griswold vs. Connecticut
Roe vs. Wade Liberal feminism Focus: Women are: Radical feminism Focus: Women: Cultural feminism Other feminist movements: Women: Postmodern feminism There have been several waves of feminism in order to bring attention to and combat these prejudices. Femininity Masculinity 1780-Today Accomplishments: Accomplishments: Focus: Liberal feminism Equal Protection under the Law
Civil Rights Act
Title IX
U.S. vs. One Package of Japanese Pessaries 1960s-1970s Violence against women
Pornography
Ecofeminism
Marriage
Heterosexism Childbirth & nursing
Women's health
Women's art, history, & literature Introduction of Women's Studies:
Final Project Academics Work Media Violence Health Boys Girls Girls are given much less attention than boys. The attention that is given to them is often on a superficial level, such as compliments on how they look or behave. They are often given the answer to a problem, rather than being taught how to work it out. These types of interactions with young girls stunt their educational growth and lowers their self-esteem, both in the classroom and out. Boys tend to receive more attention, both positive and negative, from teachers than girls. They are also given more hands-on help when solving problems. They do not have to fight as hard for attention or assistance. These types of interactions with young boys often impresses on them that they are more intelligent and important than their fellow girl classmates. Men Women Women are affected by:
The Glass Ceiling
The Glass Elevator
The Sticky Floor
Men Women Women are often not as present in television as much as men. This is referred to as symbolic annihilation. When women are shown, they are typically portrayed as either a motherly or sexual figure. Due to stereotypes, men are often represented as standard breadwinners, workers, lovers, or rugged individuals in the media and advertisements. Men Women Men Women Violence against women is most prevalent as domestic violence, rape, and stalking. Men are victims of violence in public spaces more often than women. Men, who make up more of the prison population than women, also experience state-supported violence in prison. Men are more likely than women to experience the following health issues:
Lung cancer
Work related injuries
Shorter life span
High blood pressure
Alcohol and drug abuse
Women are more likely than men to experience the following health issues:
Death from heart disease
Depression
STD
Autoimmune disease
Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Men receive more opportunities than women with much less effort in part to the belief that they are natural leaders. Because of this, they tend to obtain higher job positions and higher salaries. These disparities often result in a separation between "male" jobs and "female" jobs. “And if the doctors say ‘you have a beautiful, healthy child. We’re not exactly certain what the sex is right now and we’re gonna have to do some tests to find that out. And I know that this is probably surprising to you and you might not have heard of this before, but I have. I’ve seen it many times and I’m gonna introduce you to some other parents who have been through this and I’m gonna introduce you to some adults who have been through this.” In the future, more people will be accepting of sexes that do not fall into the rigid categories of male and female: “We think of male and female as the great human divide. But intersexuals are teaching us just how narrow that divide can be. Gender, it seems, is a work in progress for all of us.” “I need you working with me and me working with you on how we raise our sons and teach them to be men – that it’s okay to not be dominating, that it’s okay to have feelings and emotions, that it’s okay to promote equality, that it’s okay to have women who are just friends and that’s it, that it’s okay to be whole, that my liberation as a man is tied to your liberation as a woman.” In the future, more people will better understand that men and women do not have distinct characteristics and that we should all be free to allow ourselves and others to express our individuality: “I need you working with me and me working with you on how we raise our sons and teach them to be men – that it’s okay to not be dominating, that it’s okay to have feelings and emotions, that it’s okay to promote equality, that it’s okay to have women who are just friends and that’s it, that it’s okay to be whole, that my liberation as a man is tied to your liberation as a woman.” “This story just keeps playing over and over again in our country’s history. There was a time in which, I don’t know, people who were black couldn’t have the same rights. People who happened to be women didn’t have the same rights, couldn’t vote, There was a point in our history in which, if you were considered disabled, that an employer could just fire you, before the Americans with Disabilities Act. We keep doing this over and over again. “ In the future, more people will realize that we cannot continue to repeat the past and everyone will have equal rights regardless of race, gender, physical ability, or sexual orientation: In the future, more people will realize the importance of women's education and give equal opportunities and access to education to everyone: “If you’re not fully utilizing half the resources in your country, there is no way you will get anywhere near the top 10.” “Larry Summers, when he was chief economist at the World Back, once said that, ‘It many well be that the highest return on investment in the developing world is in girls’ education.’" In the future, there will be fewer wars because more women will be involved in decision making and negotiations: “I find it amazing that the only group of people who are not fighting and not killing and not pillaging and not burning and not raping, and the group of people who are mostly – though not exclusively – who are keeping life going in the midst of war, are not included in the negotiating table.” In the future, women will have completely bridged the gap between jobs previously held solely by men and jobs previously held solely by women: “Women around the world have made impressive inroads into professional services such as law, banking, accounting, and computing; in tourism related occupations; and in the information services, including offshore airline booking, mail order, credit cards, word-processing for publishers, telephone operators, and so on.” “All the people who participate in social media networks belong to the same old demographic categories that media companies and advertisers have used in order to understand them. But those categories mean even less now than they did before, because with online networking tolls, it’s much easier for us to escape some of our demographic boxes. We’re able to connect freely and redefine ourselves online.” In the future, social media will no longer depict stereotypical gender types and will continue to cater more to personal likes and dislikes than by entire demographics: transman00. (2009, July 17). Intersex Part 3 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHQJmPbHSdM. TED. (2010, December). Tony Porter: A call to men [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/tony_porter_a_call_to_men.html. TED. (2012, June). LZ Granderson: The myth of the gay agenda [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lz_granderson_the_myth_of_the_gay_agenda.html?quote=1681. TED. (2010, August). Sheryl WuDunn: Our Century’s greatest injustice [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/sheryl_wudunn_our_century_s_greatest_injustice.html. TED. (2010, July). Zainab Salbi: Women, wartime, and the dream of peace [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/zainab_salbi.html?quote=849. United Nations: Division for Advancement of Women. (1999). Engaging in Globalization: Implications for Gender Relations [Web document]. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/beirutglobal.htm. TED. (2011, February). Johanna Blakely: Social media and the end of gender [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/johanna_blakley_social_media_and_the_end_of_gender.html. Stereotypes Boys like blue?! Society often represents men with the following "hegemonic masculine" qualities:
Subordination of women
Authority
Aggression
Technical competence Stereotypes Girls like pink?! Society often represents women with the following "emphasized feminine" qualities:
Dependence on men
Sexual receptivity
Motherhood
Subordination by men Rational
Capable of economic and political self-determination
Should have access to education and employment opportunities
Are equal to men Access to employment
Reproductive & health rights
Aligned with the devalued pairs in western thought
Oppressed by patriarchy
Greater than men Women are: Have the right to define themselves
Have valuable cultures
Are not equal to men Are not a category
Have no "truths" that apply to all
Do not have an essence that remains throughout history Postcolonial
Third world/Global Other feminist movements: Marxist/Socialist
Psychoanalytic
French ...and 99 percent
of the perpetrators
are men and boys." "Almost 90 percent
of the victims
are girls and women... Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2009). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. http://www.depts.ttu.edu/wstudies/images/Skyy.jpg http://www.andmagazine.com/content/uploads/obsession__3.jpg I personally relate the most with liberal feminism. I believe everyone, regardless of race, gender, religion, or sexual orientation, should have equal rights. I agree that in order to create change, we must open everyone to equal opportunities, educate everyone equally, and establish equality through Legislation and the U.S. Courts. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. "There is no gender or sexuality -- just bodies -- before they are socially constructed." Aulette, J. R. & Wittner, J. (2012). Gendered Worlds. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Feminism is not solely about equality for women but is also about equality for all people. Jessica Mine
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