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Jim Crow Laws and the South during the 1930s
Transcript of Jim Crow Laws and the South during the 1930s
THE SOUTH IN THE 1930S African American Schooling in the American South During the 1930s History of the Jim Crow Laws a.A black male could not offer his hand (to shake hands) with a white male because it implied being socially equal. Obviously, a black male could not offer his hand or any other part of his body to a white woman, because he risked being accused of rape.
b.Blacks and whites were not supposed to eat together. If they did eat together, whites were to be served first, and some sort of partition was to be placed between them.
c.Under no circumstance was a black male to offer to light the cigarette of a white female -- that gesture implied intimacy.
d.Blacks were not allowed to show public affection toward one another in public, especially kissing, because it offended whites.
e.Jim Crow etiquette prescribed that blacks were introduced to whites, never whites to blacks. For example: "Mr. Peters (the white person), this is Charlie (the black person), that I spoke to you about."
f.Whites did not use courtesy titles of respect when referring to blacks, for example, Mr., Mrs., Miss., Sir, or Ma'am. Instead, blacks were called by their first names. Blacks had to use courtesy titles when referring to whites, and were not allowed to call them by their first names.
g.If a black person rode in a car driven by a white person, the black person sat in the back seat, or the back of a truck.
h.White motorists had the right-of-way at all intersections.
1.Never assert or even intimate that a white person is lying.
2.Never impute dishonorable intentions to a white person.
3.Never suggest that a white person is from an inferior class.
4.Never lay claim to, or overly demonstrate, superior knowledge or intelligence.
5.Never curse a white person.
6.Never laugh derisively at a white person.
7.Never comment upon the appearance of a white female. Jim Crow Guidelines For my paper, I researched how the Jim Crow laws influenced the schooling of African Americans. There were two major reasons that schools were segregated:
~Whites felt that African Americans were below them
~It was a common belief that African Americans were not able to be taught concepts considered basic Whites would do whatever they could to keep African Americans below them. This included inequality in funding for schools, and sometimes even extremes. Equal opportunities for African Americans in education did not exist. Researching this topic provided insight into To Kill A Mockingbird, by Harper Lee. In the novel, Calpurnia takes Jem and Scout to her church. When Jem and Scout ask her why the congregation doesn't use hymn books, she says that it is because they cannot read. I now understand why so many members of the congregation are not able to read, and this is because of their lack of equal opportunity in schools. The Jim Crow Laws were created when America was nearing the end of the Reconstruction era after the Civil War, the term Jim Crow was well known since the 1830s when Thomas Dartmouth Rice created a stage character named Jim Crow which originated from an old slave. The Jim Crow laws were created because the South wanted to be separated from African-Americans in everyday life. When African-Americans gained access to public facilities in 1975 by way of a Civil Rights Act, southern state legislatures created the Jim Crow legal system. • In the reconstruction era, the short time following the civil war, all blacks were freed from their slavery bindings and earned civilian rights.
• The south became enraged at the result of black freedom and used the power of local and state government to manipulate the blacks into the secondary race.
• The primary mistake the Supreme Court made was passing the separate but equal law, that allowed blacks to experience the same rights as whites but forced them to do so separately.
• The Supreme Court even went as far as saying that the black quarters would not have to be identical to the white ones, enforcing segregation.
• The above law became problematic for the blacks when they ended up being forced into slum-like areas built and designed with very little care. What was intriguing about the Jim Crow laws was the way people fought back: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People started an unequal education campaign, veterans from war began voting rights campaigns and individual communities began "dont-buy-where-you-cant-work campaings." These communities refused to buy from businesses that wouldn't let African-Americans work. The Jim Crow laws represent segregation post Civil War. Blacks did not have equal rights to whites, and To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee proves this through the trial of Tom Robinson. Because of the segregation at the time, Tom was not granted the usual presumption of innocence at the start of trial. How did they start? Sharecroppers being evicted from a plantation because they participated in a union Image Citations What were Jim Crow Laws? Lynching •The laws lasted from about 1877- through the mid 1960s
•When the African-Americans resisted, they were more often than not killed, or worse, lynched
•The laws actual intention was to suppress the rights of blacks while appearing to be just a means of avoiding conflict between races.
•Lynchings were an extremely cruel form of illegal execution based upon torture
•Most lynchings were just hanging, but other forms included burning, shooting, beaten with clubs, castrated, or even dismembered.
•Authorities weren’t usually opposed to lynching, as the officers were likely racist too.
•There were 4,730 known lynchings, including 3,440 black men and women