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harry chambers

on 25 March 2013

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By Harry Chambers 10.2 Russian Revolution Top 3....+1 #1 - Vladimir Lenin Vladimir llyich Lenin was born into a comfortable, but not wealthy family in Simbirsk, Russia. Lenin started to have a interest in revolutionary politics when his brother was executed in 1887. In autumn 1893 Lenin moved to St. Petersburg, Russia, where he joined a revolutionary cell run by S.I Radchenko, who, like Lenin, was a Marxist. Early Life In 1894 he spoke with a fellow Marxist at a Chandlestine meeting, his outspoken behaviour had been seen by a police spy. In a series of strikes in St. Petersburg in 1885, Lenin and 40 other activists were arrested for the production of a news sheet, due to be released the next day. They were charged with Sedition. Lenin was then sentenced, without trial, to three years exile to Siberia. On 10 July 1898, while still in exile, Lenin married a fellow Marxist named Nadya. 1900 - 1905 - Post Exile In 1900, his exile over, Lenin headed for Western Europe, where he met with fellow Marxists in Switzerland and Germany. In 1903 Lenin attended the 2nd congress of the RSDLP, there were two factions at the congress - the Bolsheviks, led by lenin, who believed the only way to seize power was by force, and the Mensheviks, led by Martov, who believed they could gain power eventually in a civilised manner. The 1905 Revolution and Return to Exile In 1905 Lenin returned to Russia in support of the Revolution, where he became Presidium of the RSDLP. The defeat of the revolution by the Tsarists meant exile from Russia. Until the Feburary and October revolutions of 1917 Lenin lived in Western Europe where he developed an urban - marxism thereory, you guessed it, called Leninism. Feburary Revolution In Feburary 1917, while Lenin was still on exile in Zurich, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abticate the throne because he no longer had the support of his army nor his people. This led to a Provisional Government taking the reigns. After long negotions the Government and Germany came to an agreement to send the exiled back to Russia, in exchange for prisoners of war, this included Vladimir Lenin. October 1917 - The Revolution 7 months after Lenin's April thesis where he famously stated "All power to the Soviets!" he ordered the storming of winter palace and the overthrow of the provisional goverment. On the 7th of November 1917 the Bolsheviks followed their leader and communist Russia was born. End of an Era 1924 saw the death of one of the most famous or infamous Russians ever to graze this Earth. Starting in 1923 over a course of a few months Lenin suffered four strokes. Number four left him bed ridden and mute, this is where he died. Lenin left a will for after he had died in which he wished that once Menshevik turned Bolchevik and Lenin's right hand man, Leon Trotsky, would become his successor. Although through careful manipulation Joseph Stalin manged to take the reigns. Play me - i'm Lenin giving a speech to the Soviets #2 - Joseph Stalin Early Life Joseph Stalin was born on the 18th December 1878 in present day Georgia. In 1899 Stalin was expelled from his school after missing the final exams. At this time was when he started discovering the writings of Lenin and he decided to become a revolutionary Marxist himself. Stalin then went on to join the Bolshevik's in 1900. 1917 October Revolution During the October revolution of 1917 Stalin did not have much Power within the Bolshevik Party. Although in saying this Stalin did gain Lenin's trust during the revolution as a useful ally, so Vladimir Lenin made Stalin Commissar of Nationalities. Although Joseph Stalin was a leader in the Bolshevik Party in 1917 he never really staked his clame until Lenin's death in 1924. Rise to Power In 1922 Joseph Stalin was promoted to Secretary - General of the Bolshvik Party. This position gave him the power to appoint his supporters to important posts. Thus, many key Party officials owed their spot to Stalin and therefore were very loyal to him.
In 1924 Vladimir Lenin passed away, this meant that a leader had to be appointed. In Vladimir Lenin's will he stated that he believed that Leon Trotsky would be the best fit for the role, Lenin also stated in his will that he believed Stalin had too much power in his current position and he should be removed from that position. Rise to Power Cont. After Lenin's death Stalin managed to trick Trotsky into thinking that the funeral was on another day, therefore Trotsky missed Lenin's funeral. This move angered party members as it showed a lack of respect for Lenin. Also to further complicate things Stalin gave himself th title as chief mourner at Lenin's funeral. Stalin also portrayed that he was very close to Lenin. Which he was not. In 1925 Stalin used his power as Secretary - General to pack a Party Meeting with his supporters, who voted to remove Trotsky from all of his posts. Leaving Lenin to become the new leader of the Soviet Union. As new leader of the Soviet Union Stalin wanted Russia to become an industrial super power, even more powerful than the United States, the way he eventually achieved this was through five year plans and collectivisation of farms. Five Year Plans Collectivisation Impact of Industrialisation on Russia Rule by Terror The End is Near #3 - Leon Trotsky One way that Stalin implemented his process of industrialisation of Russia was by making five year plans. Five year plans were production targets set by the goverment for workers to achieve at the end of the five years. The problem was that the targets were very unrealistic. Stalin set 3 five year plans for the Russian people from the mid - 1920's up until the late 1930's. The other way that Stalin implenmented his industrialisation of Russia was through the collectivisation of farms. In Stalin's mind this meant that the farmers, along with new machinery provided to them by the government, would be able to greatly increase their production of crops, this would mean that the Soviet Union could sell the extra crops to other countries and use te profits to build more factories. Stalin's other theory was that if farming meothods improved then less people would be needed to work the land and instead they could move to the city and work in the new factories. Although the problem was that all the machinery given to the farmers did increase production of crops, but, when these machines broke down, having never had them before, the people did not know how to fix them, so they returned to traditional ways of farming by hand, this meant that the productivity dropped. Initially the idea of Industrialisation motivated workers in Russia although this enthusiasm waned in the face of appaling working conditions and unrealistic production targets. By 1929 there was labor unrest, as workers protested against their harsh conditions. The Stalin government responded by taking severe discinplinary action against under performing workers or workers who engaged in sabotage. Stalin's rule over Russia was largely aided by the terror tactics inforced by himself along with his fellow leaders. Joeph Stalin ruled Russia by conducting purges, this meant that anyone who opposed Stalin, or could oppose him, mainly intelectuals, were arrested by the NKVD, who had a quota on how many people they were to arrest each day. This rule of terror by Stalin meant that tere was much fear and suspiscion amongst the Russian people, this is because the NKVD needed no evidence to make to arrest someone. This also made the Russian people very anxious about answering the door at night because it was known that the NKVD would just turn up at night to arrest someone. During his reign Joseph Stalin was very successful at controling the culture, and history, of his country. He did this by controlling the education system. The teaching of history in schools was changed to focuson the importance of Lenin and Stalin. Stalin was also shown to of played a major role in the 1917 Revolution, whereas figuers such as Leon Trotsky. On the 2nd of March 1953, after an all night dinner and show the night before, Joseph Stalin was found in his bedroom at his estate in Kuntsevo, about 15Km from the capital Moscow, lying on the floor. It is believed that he had suffered a massive stroke. 4 days later on the 6th of March 1953 the bedridden Stalin passed away, aged 74. Stalin at age 23 1905 Revolution After what now is known as 'Bloody Sunday' Leon Trotsky returned to Russia is 1905, coming from Kiev. At first Trotsky was printing underground leaflets supporting both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks, in these leaflets he pushed a more radical approach towards another revolution. Althugh soon after releasing the leaflets the Mensheviks were betrayed by an undercover NKVD agent and Trotsky was forced to flee to rural Finland. 1917 October Revolution Leon Trotsky was a key player in the October Revolution. Although only just having joined the Bolsheviks Trotsky was already a key leader. Trotsky was a strong supporter of Lenin and played a major role in leading the soviets to power. Civil War After the Revolution Vladimir Lenin appointed Trotsky the Commissar of Foreign Affairs. Trotsky was in this position from after the Revolution up until the Civil War.

At the beggining of the Civil war Leon Trotsky founded the Red Army (Bolsheviks), Trotsky was also the leader of the Red Army. After 2 years of fighting (1918 - 20) Trotsky was successful in leading the Red Army to victory over the White Army, and keeping Russia in Bolshevik control Lenin's Death In 1924 the leader of the Bolsheviks and Communist Russia, Vladimir Lenin, died. This meant that there needed to be a new leader of the Soviets, and according to Lenins' will he believed Trotsky was the man for the job. Although Trotsky was up against who would become one of the most ruthless leaders of all time, Joseph Stalin. Exile to Mexico In 1925 Joseph Stalin abused his power as Secretary-General to pack a ministers meeting with just his supporters, he had one goal, to eliminate the competition for the leader of Communist Russia, and he succeded. In 1925 Leon Trotsky was retired from all his duties and in 1929 was exiled to Mexico, all at the hand of the new leader of Soviet Russia, Joseph Stalin. Exile and Assascination In 1929 Leon Trotsky was exiled to Mexico, where he stayed up until his assacination in 1940. On the 20th of August 1940 Leon Trotsky, while in his home in Mexico, was attacked by an under cover NKVD Agent, Ramon Mercader, who was ordered to assascinate Trotsky by Vladimir Lenin. Although the problem was the blow to Trotskys head did not kill him instantly,this meant that Trotskys' body guards had time to barge in and start whaling on the assasin, almost killing him. Trotsky was then taken to hospital where he was operated on straight away. Trotsky survived for over a day after the attack, but on the 21st of August 1940, Leon Trotsky passed away as a result of severe blood loss and shock. He was 60 years old. And Finally my +1
The Mad Monk...
Grigori Rasputin! Who Was He? Grigori Rasputin, nicknamed 'the mad monk' was Tsar Nicholas II 'Holy Man'. Rasputin was considered a friend by the Tsar,but during WWI while the Tsar was off leading the Russian Army (towards a great defeat at the hands of the Germans) Rasputin became an Tsarina Alexandra's personal advisor. During the war the Russian Duma was concerned at how Rasputin was munipulating the Tsarina (the Tsars' wife) and they believed that he was gaining to much control over Russia. Rasputin's Murder...Eventually On either the 17th of December or the 29th of December Grigori Rasputin died (depending on calendar used). Although this wasn't just a death, Rasputin was killed...eventually. Having decided that Rasputins influence of the Tsarina had become so great that it was know a threat to the empire a group of nobles, led by Felix Lusupov, lured Rasputin to the basement of the Lusupovs' Moika Palace. There Rasputin ate cake which was laden with enough poison to kill 5 men although he didn't die. Becoming unpatient with Rasputin not dying Prince Yusupov had had enough so he decided to go upstairs and consult with the other nobles on whether or not he should end Rasputins' life then and there, the answer was yes. Lusupov then proceeded to go into the basement where he shot Rasputn in the head with a revolver. With the job done the Nobles then left the vicinity of the basement with Rasputin still lying on the floor. Just before they were about to leave, Lusupov decided to go back to the room where Rasputin lay to get a jacket and check on the body... As the party went into the basement to check on the body they noticed something amazing, Rasputin was still alive. As Rasputin struggled to get up he started to try and strangle Lusupov, as the nobles saw this they began firing at Rasputin, amazingly as they moved toward the body they noticed that Rasputin was still alive, so they started clubbing him. After the nobels had bound and wrapped the body in carpet they threw Rasputin into the icy Neva River. A few days later the body was removed from the river and a autopsy was performed. Amazingly the autopsy found that the cause of death was actually drowning, which meant that in actual fact Rasputin was still alive when he was thrown into the river because water was found in his lungs. Industrialiasation Culture Control
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