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Computer Graphics


Adrian Dabek

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Computer Graphics

CrossFire and SLI compared
Motherboard with AGP slot
Stands for Accelerated Graphics Port
It is a motherboard slot, to which a graphics card can be attached
Dedicated to just dealing with graphics
Replaced PCI connector at 133 MB/s
AGP 1x had a max data rate of 266 MB/s
AGP 8x had 2133 MB/s
Nvidia chipsets
A little bit overdone?
3ds Max
Cinema 4D
Google SketchUp
Swift 3D
CG Software for 3D Graphics
Adobe Illustrator
Adobe Flash
Microsoft Expression Design
CG Software for Vector Graphics
Cosmigo Pro Motion
Microsoft Paint
CG Software for Pixel Art
Adobe Illustrator
Anime Studio (for 2D animation)
Adobe Flash (for 2D animation)
RETAS (for 2D animation)
Cacani (for 2D animation)
CG Software for 2D

„Flat” images, which can be created through either vector graphics or raster graphics.
Very often done on a rectangular grid consisting of pixels („dots”).
Used for printing materials, but also can be used for cartoons.
2D Computer Graphics
2D Computer Graphics
Pixel Art
Vector Graphics
3D Computer Graphics
Computer Animation
Types of CG
Used in the medical field
By: Adrian Dabek

Computer Graphics
PCI-E Slots
Stands for Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
It is a motherboard slot to which any type of expansion card can be attached
PCI-E 1x data rate is 250 (500) MB/s
PCI-E 32x is 8000 (16000) MB/s
PCI-E or PCI-Express
Radeon - cards used in stationary PCs
Mobility Radeon - used in laptops
FirePro - workstations
FireStream - GPGPU, HPC, scientific and financial sectors
Xenos - used in Xbox 360
Hollywood - used in Nintendo Wii
Imageon - used in mobile devices, SoC (sold to Qualcomm in 2009)
ATI/AMD chipsets
Windows Movie Maker
Mental Ray
CG Software for Computer Animation
3D graphics are closely related to 2D graphics
They use similar mathematical data and calculations for creating them
2D and 3D graphics are often used together to create images
3D Computer Graphics
Very powerful
3D Real-Time Motion Capture
Video Cards set up in CrossFire
Video Cards set up in SLI
Allows to connect up to 4 video cards
Difference from SLI is, that you can connect different cards from the same generation, where with SLI you need to use the same GPU
SLI can also run many monitors of varying size and resolution, while SLI only allows three monitors (exception Nvidia Surround)
Compatible with more motherboards
Some games do not support CrossFire, and therefore it is more difficult to set up the in-game graphics
SLI Connectors
9-Pin VIVO, DVI for HDTV, DE-15 for VGA


Outputs & Inputs
Some cards can capture TV shows, videos from external devices, or connect several monitors
Additional functions of Graphic Cards
A graphics card is responsible for displaying an image on a display device
It is a stand-alone card, which is plugged into the motherboard
What is a Graphics Card and the GPU?
DirectX is a set of APIs (application programming interfaces)
DirectX consists of over 10 different APIs
It works as an interface to help programmers create games and videos
What is DirectX?
Computer Animation
2D and 3D together
Vector graphics programs use mathematical formulas to create images
They use lines, curves, dots, and some other geometrical shapes
Usually take up more space, but enlarging an image usually makes it keep the resolution, and therefore look sharp
Vector Graphics
CG in Printed Media
CG in Television
They are every image, video, or animation, which has been created or modified using a computer and software.
What are CG?

The End?
CrossFire Connectors
CG in Games
3D Real-Time Motion Capture
Intel (mainly integrated graphics on motherboards)
Existing Graphic Card Chipsets and Manufacturers
Created using raster graphics
The pixels are manipulated to create images
Old computer games, many current cell phone games, photos
Easier and faster to manipulate, require less memory space
Limitations in image enlarging
Pixel Art
A series of 3D images, where in each consecutive image, there is a slight change in position to show movement
Used for movies, TV, and games
Also known as CGI (Computer Generated Imagery)
Motherboard chipsets are in the nForce series, with the nForce 900 being the current fastest GPU
GeForce – cards used in stationary PCs
Quadro – used in workstations
Tesla – GPGPU
Tegra – for mobile devices, SoC (System on a Chip)
GPU for original Xbox and PS3
Computer Animation Festival Trailers – SIGGRAPH 2007, 2009 & 2013
Stands for Scalable Link Interface
Allows to connect more than one graphics card together
Divides the graphics calculations among the cards, which speeds up framerates
In rare cases it can lower framerates
In 1998 it was already used by 3dfx in their Vodoo 2 cards. Back then it was called Scan-Line Interleave
By: Mr. Adrian Dabek
Motion Capture
Records the movement of objects or people
Used in military, entertainment, sports, medical applications, and robotics
Also called "motion tracking" or "match moving"
More rapid, even real time results can be obtained, which can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation.
Allows many tests to be done with different styles or deliveries, giving a different personality only limited by the talent of the actor.
Complex movement and realistic physical interactions such as secondary motions, weight and exchange of forces can be easily recreated in a physically accurate manner.
Amount of animation data that can be produced within a given time is extremely large when compared to traditional animation techniques. This contributes to both cost effectiveness and meeting production deadlines.
Potential for free software and third party solutions reducing its costs.
Specific hardware and special software programs are required.
Costs of this equipment and personnel required can be high for small productions.
Capture system may have specific requirements for the space it is operated in.
Only a few systems allow real time viewing of the data to decide if the take needs to be redone.
Sometimes a lot of additional animation must be added later.
If the computer model has different proportions from the capture subject, artifacts may occur. For example, if a cartoon character has large, over-sized hands, these may intersect the character's body if the human performer is not careful with their physical motion.
Pixel, pel, or picture element is the smallest physical point in a raster image.
LCD pixels are laid out in a two-dimensional grid.
The address of a pixel corresponds to its physical coordinates.
The color of a pixel is represented by three or four component intensities such as red, green, and blue (RGB), or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK).
Pixel continued
dots per inch (dpi) and pixels per inch (ppi)
often used interchangeably but mean different things
dpi used in printing
ppi used for resolution
e.g. 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels or 0.3 megapixels
generating an image from a model by means of computer programs
it contains geometry, viewpoint, texture, lighting, and shading information
used in architecture, video games, simulators, movie or TV visual effects, and design visualization
process which smooths polygon edges in images
Open Graphics Library
application programming interface (API) for rendering 2D and 3D vector graphics
multi-platform (MS Windows, Linux, etc.)
managed by the non-profit technology consortium Khronos Group
Image File Formats
Raster Formats
jpeg/jpg (lossy format)
tiff (both lossy and lossless)
gif (lossless but limited in colors, also supports animation)
bmp (uncompressed and therefore large, but easily used in Windows programs)
png (lossless and features similar to other formats)
File Formats
2D Vector Formats:
cgm (for 2D vector graphics, raster graphics, and text)
svg (key component in web applications: interactive web pages that look and act like applications)
cdr (CorelDRAW)
ppt (Power Point)
Speed Comparison
GeForce4 Ti4600
Release date: 6th Feb 2002
Bus Interface: AGP 4x
Memory: 128 MiB*
Core Clock: 300 MHz
Memory Clock: 650 MHz
MilOperations/s: 1200
Bandwidth: 10.4 GB/s
Bus Width: 128 bit
GeForce GTX 780Ti
Release date: 7th Nov 2013
Bus Interface: PCIe 3.0 16x
Memory: 3072 MiB(Mebibyte)
Core Clock: 875 MHz
Memory Clock: 1750 MHz
MilOps/s: 27 000 000 000 ?
Bandwidth: 336.4 GB/s
Bus Width: 384 bit
*2 to the power of 20; so 1 mebibyte is 1 048 576 bytes
Anisotropic Filtering
Improving and smoothing images when viewed at angles.
Thank you for listening...
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