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Physical Layer of OSI

The First Layer from OSI Layer. What's that? Let see... :)
by

Arie Yang

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Physical Layer of OSI

Introduction Prinsip Dasar Physical Layer Physical Signaling and Encoding Physical Layer mengontrol bagaimana data di transmit melalui media komunikasi
Fungsi Physical Layer: meng-encode bit-bit dari frame Data Link Layer menjadi sinyal dan mengirimkan serta menerima sinyal ini melalui media transmisi (kabel tembaga, wireless, optical fiber) yang terhubung dengan network device Physical Component Signaling Bits Untuk Media OSI Physical Layer The Purpose Menerima frame dari Data Link Layer dan di-encode menjadi sinyal yang ditransmit melalui media transmisi. Pengiriman frame melalui media transmisi memerlukan elemen Physical Layer sebagai berikut:
Media fisik dan konektornya
Representasi bit dalam bentuk sinyal
Encode data dan mengontrol informasi
Transmitter dan Receiver dalam jaringan

Jadi, tujuan utama dari Physical Layer adalah membuat sinyal elektrik, optical, atau microwave dari representasi bit setiap frame Cara Kerja Physical Layer Media membawa sinyal satu per satu untuk mewakili bit yang membentuk frame
Media: Kabel Tembaga, Wireless, Fiber Optic
Jenis sinyal:
Kabel Tembaga: sinyal atau pulsa listrik
Wirelesss: transmisi radio
Fiber optic: cahaya Standard Physical Layer terdiri dari perangkat keras: sirkuit elektronika, media, konektor
Perlu adanya standar/minimum requirement Organisasi Internasional untuk Standarisasi (ISO)
Institute of Electrical dan Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Aliansi Industri Elektronik / Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA / TIA)
Nasional otoritas telekomunikasi seperti Federal Communication Commission(FCC) di Amerika Serikat. Teknologi yang didefinisikan oleh organisasi-organisasi tersebut mencakup 4 bidang standar physical layer:
Fisik dan sifat elektrikal dari media
Sifat mekanik dari konektor (bahan, dimensi, pinout)
Representasi bit oleh sinyal (encoding)
Definisi kontrol informasi sinyal Perangkat keras elektronik, media, dan konektor lainnya, yang dapat mengirimkan dan membawa sinyal untuk mewakili bit Encoding Metode mengubah aliran bit data kedalam kode sinyal yang telah ditetapkan
Kode: Pengelompokan bit untuk memberikan pola agar dapat dipahami oleh transmitter dan receiver
Pengkodean juga untuk identifikasi awal dan akhir bit frame Signaling Menghasilkan sinyal listrik, optik, atau wireless yang mewakili 1 atau 0 Meskipun semua bit yang membentuk sebuah frame disajikan ke lapisan fisik sebagai satu unit, transmisi frame di media terjadi sebagai aliran bit dikirim satu per satu.
Setiap sinyal yang ditempatkan ke media memiliki jumlah waktu tertentu untuk menduduki media, disebut sebagai bit time. Metode Signaling Varying Amplitude
Varying Frequency
Varying Phase Contoh signaling method:
Non-Return To Zero (NRZ)
Manchester Encoding Metode signaling yang digunakan harus kompatibel dengan standar sehingga receiver bisa mendeteksi sinyal dan men-decode-nya. Non Return To Zero (NRZ) Manchester Encoding Encoding - Grouping Bits More high speed, more error
Code Group: simbol dari grup-grup kecil bit yang sudah dikenal dan merepresentasikan grup besar dari data bit.
Code Group meningkatkan peforma dari jaringan high-speed:
Mengurangi bit level error
Membatasi energi efektif yang ditransmisikan kedalam media
Membantu membedakan antara data bit dengan kontrol bit
Menyediakan media error detection yang lebih baik
Distinction by three types of symbol:
Data symbol
Control Symbol
Invalid symbol Data Carrying Capacity Bandwidth (Theoretical) Kapasitas medium untuk membawa data dalam sejumlah waktu (standar: bps / bits per second)
Berperan dalam sifat fisik dari medium dan metode signaling yang akan digunakan. Throughput (Practical) Data transfer rate yang aktual melalui medium dalam satu periode waktu
Factor influence throughput:
Jumlah dan jenis traffic
Jumlah devices yang terhubung ke jaringan Goodput (Qualitative) Transfer rate dari data bit aktual yang benar-benar akan digunakan oleh aplikasi
Goodput = Throuhput- protocol overhead bits, error connection, retransmission request, encapsulation, etc. Physical Media Copper Media Paling banyak digunakan hingga sekarang karena menghantarkan signal elektrik dengan sangat baik.
Standar-standar dalam media tembaga:
Tipe kabel tembaga yang digunakan
Bandwidth
Tipe konektor
Pinout dan kode warna koneksi
Jarak maksimum
Form signal: small pulses of electrical voltage
Mudah terinferensi dan pelemahan sinyal (atenuasi) UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Cable TIA/EIA standards include:
Tipe Kabel
Panjang Kabel
Konektor
Cable Termination
Methods of testing
IEEE menereapkan kategori berdasarkan peforma bandwidth.
Cat 5 – up to 100-megabit
Cat 5e – full-duplex up to 1000-megabit (gigabit)
Cat 6 – recommended standard for gigabit Ethernet-Straight Through Ethernet Crossover Ethernet Rollover Other Copper Cable Types:
Coaxial Cable:
Used in wireless and cable access technologies.
Attach antennas to wireless devices.
Transmitting television channels.
Can run longer distances than STP or UTP. Copper Media Other Copper Cable Types:
Hybrid Fiber-Coax (HFC):
Cable structure used to provide two way communication over a coaxial cable (i.e. cable connection to the Internet)
Coaxial at the destination but multi-fiber optical cable to the provider. Copper Media Other Copper Cable Types:
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP):
STP cable shields the entire bundle of wires within the cable as well as the individual wire pairs to provide better noise protection than UTP. Copper Media Copper Media While connectors may appear the same, they may be wired differently depending on the Physical Layer specification. Copper Media Connectors Fiber Optic Fiber Media Fiber vs Copper:
More expensive (usually) than copper media over the same distance (but for a higher capacity).
Different skills and equipment required to terminate and splice the cable infrastructure.
More careful handling than copper media.
Immune to electromagnetic interference.
Much greater lengths than copper media (kilometers). Fiber Media Cable Construction:
PVC jacket and a series of strengthening materials that surround the optical fiber and its cladding.
The cladding surrounds the actual glass or plastic fiber and is designed to prevent light loss from the fiber.
Two fibers are required to support full duplex operation. Fiber Media Fiber Media Fiber Media Connectors Wireless Media Wireless media carry electromagnetic signals at radio and microwave frequencies that represent the binary digits of data communications. Wireless Media Types of Wireless Networks:
Standards cover both the Data Link and Physical layers.
Four common data communications standards:
Standard IEEE 802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard.
Standard IEEE 802.15: Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard.
Standard IEEE 802.16: Wireless broadband access.
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM): Data transfer over mobile cellular telephony networks. Wireless Media Standard IEEE 802.11:
Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard.
Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi.
Uses a contention system with Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). Wireless Media Standard IEEE 802.11:
Wireless LAN (WLAN) standard. Wireless Media Wireless Media Standard IEEE 802.15:
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) standard.
Commonly known as "Bluetooth“
Uses a device pairing process to communicate over distances from 1 to 100 meters. Wireless Media Standard IEEE 802.16:
Wireless broadband access.
Commonly known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access. Wireless Media
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