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Ancient Civilizations

History of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and their impact on the world today
by

Bailey Willis

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Civilizations

Ancient Civilizations
Bailey Willis
Ancient Egypt
History
3,000 years of Ancient Egypt have been divided into 9 periods also known as kingdoms.
The Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for their queens and pharoahs.
The Great Sphinx is a large human headed lion that was carved from a mound of natural rock. It is located in Giza where guards left it in front of Khafra's pyramid.
The largest temples in Ancient Egypt were made of stone, so they would last forever.
Temples were believed to be the homes of gods and goddesses.
Every temple was dedicated to a different god or goddess where they were worshiped by the temple priests and pharaohs.
Famous rulers of Ancient Egypt are King Tut,who was married to Queen Nefertiti Akhenathon, Queen Nefertari, and Queen Cleopatra who held the title as the last pharaoh of Egypt before it was taken over by the Romans.
Culture
An individual of ancient Egypt roles in life depended on his/her family's social class.
The ancient Eygpt Social Pyramid is the representation of the social classes in ancient Egypt.
Another part of Egyptian culture is astrology.
Ancient Egyptian astrology was the start of today's astrology, for they were the first to judge someone's character depending their birthday. However, the Egyptian zodiac signs are no longer in use, and have been replaced by the ones we know today.
Pharaoh's zodiac
Ancient Egyptian Calender
Technology
Ancient Egyptian kept time with clocks. Two types of clocks actually. The first was the sun dial, but it only worked with sunlight. The second type of clock was a water clock. A bowl is filled with water at a certain time of day.(while the sun dial is in use) Water leaks out of a hole in the bottom of the bowl, and the time is determined by the level of water as it went down out of the bowl.
The Egyptian had a diffent form of calender than we do today. There were ten days in a week, three weeks in a month, four months in a season, with three seasons in a year, which led up to 365 days in a year. The Egyptians were the first to come up with 365 days in a year.
Artifacts
Th Heiroglyphic is considered the most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts.
The bust of Queen Nefertiti is also an important artifact. It was found in 1912 by a German archaeologist, and it is now in the Egyptian mueseum in Berlin.
King Tut's death mask is also a known artifact of ancient Egypt. King Tut wore a golden mask after his death when he was placed in a tomb. The mask itself weighs ten kilos, 24 pounds and is fifty four centimeters(twenty one inches) in height, and fifteen inches wide.
Nefertiti's Bust
King
Tutankhamun's (Tut) Death Mask
Ancient Mesopotamia
History
Mesopotamia is a greek word meaning
"between the rivers."
The two rivers of Mesopotamia are the Tigris and the Eurphates. Eurphates is the western rivers, abd Tigris is closer to Iran.
Due to the rivers close by ancient Mesopotamia was often flooded the land was very fertile.
Even though the floods helped Mesopotamian soil to become richer every year with more silt it took huge amounts of manual labor to protect the plants from the flooding waters.
Mesoptamia is mostly located in modern Iraq today, but the area was originally home ot many diffent people including Neolithic villagers to the empires of Assyria and Persia.
Ancient Mesopotamia is where the world's first cities appeared. Before this most people lived in the country. City life allowed people to come together and work with one another.
It is believed an ancient area, known as Eridu, was the first city to ever be created.
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Culture
Mesopotamians believed in hundreds of god, so they were polytheistic. Some people depended on their own personal relationship with a god.
- Every city had its own god or goddess. ( This is somewhat simillar to what the ancient Egyptians did except they dedicated temples to their own god or goddess.)
Major Gods:
- Anu: the father of the gods and of the sky.
-Utu: the god of the sun.
-Nanna: the god of the moon.
-Inanna: the goddess of love and war.
-Ninhursag:the goddess of the earth.
In the daily lives men would go out to work their jobs, and women would stay at home and care for the children. The average number of children in a household was three or four because infant mortality was high. The way children were raised depended on their gender. Boys were taught skills that were used for work, and girls were taught to be wives and mothers. Some women could have jobs, but they were usually related to household tasks.
Technology
The seeder plow, created by the Mesopotamians, carried out the tasks of seeding and plowing at the same time. Seeds were dropped down a funnel and into the furrow created by the plow.
The wheel was created by the Mesopotamians, and was thought to probably have been used on the chariots.
Ancient Wheel
Writing came from many diffent cultures, but the Mesopotamians were known to have the earliest form of writing. Pictures were drawn onto clay tablets to represent an idea or object. The clay became difficult to draw lines and curves, so the pictures eventually became wedge-shaped signs. This wedge-shaped writing is known as cuneiform.
Ancient
Mesopotamian
Writing
Artifacts
The Standard of Ur was found in a cemetary in Ur, in Southern Iraq, and its original purpose is not known. Some people believe it was once carried on a pole as a standard. Other people think the Standard of Ur was a soundbox from a musical instrument.
Standard of Ur
The royal headdress of Queen Puabi was found by Charles Wooley in the Royal Cemetary of Ur.
Headress of Queen Puabi
The headdress was gold, lapis lazuli, and carnelian.
Periods of Ancient Egypt
3000-
2575 B.C.
Early Dynastic Period
Old Kingdom
First Intermediate
Period
Middle Kingdom
Second Intermediate
Period
New Kingdom
Late Dynastic Period
Greek / Roman Period
The Queen was also found buried with over sixty of her attendants. She was covered in many other jewels besides her headdress.
Questions to think about...
Who were these people?
These people were the ones who created some inventions that are still in use today. (Just with different appearances.) The Egyptians and Mesopotamians discovered how to keep time, and they created calendars like we have. Even though their lifestyles are different than ours today, we should admire how hard they worked to accomplish what they did.
What would the world today be like without them?
I think the world would be very different if neither civilizations occured. If the Mesopotamian civilization never occured, we might not have the wheel, or some people might not know how to write. If ancient Egypt never happend, we might not know how to tell time, and there wouldn't be any of the beautiful landforms located in Egypt today.
Which civilization was the most influential?
In my own opinion I believe that ancient Mesopotamia was the most influential civilization. Mesopotamia had the first city ever to be built in the world. The first form of writing was known to be by the Mesopotamians. The wheel, which we all know is know used on vehicles, was an invention by the Mesopotamians. I think that Mesopotamia is a more influential civilization because they went through more hard times, and still became a successful civilization.
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