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We Live and We Learn
Transcript of We Live and We Learn
The Situation at Home
Learning occurs not only through conditioning but also from our observations of others.
Lord Chesterfield (1694-1773) had the idea: "We are, in truth, more than half of what we are by imitation."
Learning by Observation
Among higher animals, such as humans, learning need not occur through direct experience
Observational learning, in which we observe and imitate others' behaviors, also plays a big part.
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior is often called modeling. By observing and imitating models we learn all kinds of social behaviors.
Upon concluding an experiment with the observational learning of children, Bandura found that children who observed aggressive outbursts were much more likely to display the same feelings and behaviors to those around them.
Observing adult models beating up on a Bobo doll lowered the children's inhibitions to do the same.
Applications of Observational
Studies show that in antisocial models such as from family, a neighborhood, or on TV may have antisocial effects. This helps explain how abusive parents might have aggressive children.
Prosocial models can also have positive social effects. People who exemplify nonviolent helpful behavior can prompt similar behavior in others.
Implement an At Home Plan
Punishment has drawbacks such as increasing aggression by demonstrating that aggression is a way to cope with problems like the two girls display at school.
It produces fear and the person receiving the punishment may associate the fear not only with the undesirable behavior but also with the person who administers it, or their parents.
Punishment tells you what not to do rather than what to do, so turn negative comments into constructive criticism, and use positive reinforcement to reward positive behavior at home.
Do not show hypocrisy by using the phrase, "Do as i say not as I do", because children mimic both what you say and do regardless because you are their guardian.
There are parental training programs available to expedite this process.
The Classroom: The Cornerstone of Success
When a child comes of age, the classroom becomes perhaps the most important place for him or her to be. From language development to social development, it is where the growing child learns lessons that he or she could not learn elsewhere.
Whether it is at home or on the playground, children are always learning and developing, forming schemas and learning lessons that they will carry with them for life.
To learn in a safe and secure environment is among the rights of
child, regardless of gender, race, or creed. The student deserves to be able to maintain peace of mind as he or she learns and grows.
Should, for any reason, this peace of mind be disrupted, whether it is caused by another student or by outside circumstances, it is the sole responsibility of the school board to restore it.
Behavior Modification through Pavlovian Conditioning
Associative Learning/Classical Conditioning
associative learning: learning that certain events occur together
classical conditioning: conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is paired with and precedes an unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit an unconditioned response
“When you know better you do better.”
- Maya Angelou
Without in-depth scientific explanation, Ivan Pavlov's (1839-1936) experiment can easily be summed up:
HE PROVED THAT AN OLD DOG
BE TAUGHT NEW TRICKS!
The following are the facets of Pavlovian Conditioning:
APPLICATION IN THE CLASSROOM
(diminishing of a CR)
(reappearance of an extinguised CR)
(tendency for similar stimuli to CS to evoke a similar response)
Theoretically, associative learning can implemented in a behavior modification program designed for culturally deprived children like Dianne and Jane, two 7-year-old African American girls who are rather rambunctious in the classroom.
*The ultimate goal is to get the children to form positive associations that will, in turn, result in improved behavior by using operant conditioning (to be spoken on shortly) as a catalyst for classical conditioning.*
UCS --> UCR
CS --> CR
UCS: reinforcement from operant condition
CS: good behavior
Ideally, children will ask themselves, "What causes reinforcement, which makes me ? "
Behavior Modification through Operant Conditioning:
Furthermore, it is the conjoined responsibility of both teachers and parents to help disadvantaged and/or difficult children to reach their full potential and to succeed.
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment
Used shaping to gradually guide a rat's behavior toward the desired behavior of pressing the bar rewarding it with food.
Reinforcement responses of Operant Conditioning:
Fixed-Ratio schedule (after set # of responses)
Variable-Ratio schedules (unpredictable # of responses
Fixed-Interval schedules (after fixed time period)
Variable-Interval schedules (after varying time intervals)
"voluntary" operates on environment
GENERAL IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SYSTEM
The way positive reinforcement is carried out is more important than the amount.
Can be applied at school, at work, at home, to ourselves.
To ensure that the needs of each and every student are being properly met, the following changes should be considered :
smaller class sizes
(give students a more personalized learning experience)
formal training for teachers
(optimal teaching and behavioral modification techniques for the classroom)
hire a school psychologist
(easy access to expert help for difficult children)
Positive reinforcer: strenghtens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response.
Negative Reinforcer: strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus
Application in the
By building operant conditioning techniques into lesson plans, it is easily possible to teach Dianne and Jane good behaviors.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): triggers a natural response
Unconditioned Response (UCR): reflex
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): triggers a trained response
Conditioned Response (CR): trained response
Remember every action has a consequence. When dealing with these two subjects an easy way to begin is by explaining to the children what behavior is expected, and what behavior is unacceptable
We Want Good Behavior
The idea is to ensure that the two subjects, Dianne and Jane, are given their separate attention from the teacher, and learn right from wrong
(++) : To add, present, provide
(-+) Remove, take away
(--) When bad behavior is displayed, take away something of their liking.
(+-) Giving a consequence, to a negative action
Examples: When the desired good behavior occurs,
reward with goodies, much like stickers, gold stars, etc.
reward with vocal applause "Good job"
reward with extra play time, nap time, etc.
These will help Dianne and Jane continue to perform good behavior in the classroom
A stimulus is removed, which leads to the increase of good behavior
Take away their timeout time
take away clean up time
Anything that can be taken away, but with a positive effect to ensure the continuation of good behavior, much like a reward.
Examples: When bad behavior is displayed,
Give a timeout
Give verbal scoldings, and explain what behavior is unacceptable.
These actions will help Dianne and Jane understand that when they act up in the classroom, there are consequences.
Examples: When they misbehave,
Take away their gold star, sticker, etc
Take away their nap time or play time
This way Dianne and Jane will understand that when they misbehave and break the rules, they will not have the rewards that come with good behavior.