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Unit 2 - Physiology of Fitness

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Benjamin Cox

on 26 March 2014

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Transcript of Unit 2 - Physiology of Fitness

Anticipatory Heart Rate Response
1. Know the body's response to acute exercise
Unit 2 - Physiology of Fitness
Acute Responses to Exercise

What do you see in this image?
Task: (3 minutes)
With the person next to you discuss the words Physiology and Fitness.

What do they mean? Can they be linked together?

Think of your own definition for the Physiology and then for Fitness. Write it down on the post-it.

Be prepared to share to the whole class.
is the study of how body tissues work in relation to their function.
(Griffin, 2012).

is the ability to meet the physical demands of the environment
(Smelt, 2008).
Assignment 1
P1/M1 - Describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems response to acute exercise

P2/M1 - Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise

What do we mean by acute?
Changes according to the body’s needs.

Increases during exercise to deliver extra oxygen to tissues & remove carbon dioxide.

At rest, the average heart beats approx …… bpm & up to …….. bpm for strenuous exercise - using the internet on your phone find out the averages above.

what does this mean?
Anticipatory heart rate is an increase in HR that occurs typically just before an activity is to be undertaken, without muscular contraction.

It is mediated through the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream (sympathetic nervous system)

Participants anticipate with excitement and enthusiasm – emotional state? anxiety?

Task: 10 mins
Why is it necessary?

When is it greatest? Sporting example?

Think about our exercise response chart, what is your cardiovascular response during exercise?

Immediate/short-term effects
What do you think your acute cardiovascular response to exercise will be based on this morning's results?
Does anyone know how to calculate your maximum potential heart rate?
•HRmax = 220 - Age
Blood Pressure
Pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries

Systolic pressure – pressure exerted in the arteries when the heart contracts

Diastolic pressure – pressure exerted in the arteries when the heart relaxes and fills with blood

During exercise, systolic blood pressure rises progressively, while diastolic blood pressure stays the same or decreases slightly.

Heart rate will be at resting levels.
Low oxygen demand.
Low energy demand.
Relaxed state of mind.

An increase in heart rate
Anticipatory response
Increase in hormone activity, releasing adrenaline

Heart rate remains elevated before it reaches resting levels.
Recovery process (EPOC).
Repaying oxygen debt.
Gradual decrease (fitness levels)

Difference in HR at Various Stages

Further Responses
Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
Lets investigate the acute respiratory responses to exercise ourselves - Practical!
Increased breathing rate
5 m
20 m
Breathing rate changes
45 m
Exercise results in an increase in the rate and depth of breathing -

At rest an average adults breathing rate is BPM

During maximal exercise an average healthy adults breathing rate increases between 35 - 45 BPM

Elite athletes often achieve between 60-70 BPM

(McArdle et al 2010)
Neural and chemical control
Increases in the rate and depth of breathing are detected by the stretch receptors of the brain (Medulla and pons) send nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles to control breathing frequency and tidal volume of each breath.
Neural control
Neural - The study of the human brain
There are chemoreceptors in the brain and the heart that sense the amount of oxygen, carbon dioxide and acid present in the body. As a result, they modulate the respiratory rate to compensate for any disruptions in balance of any of these chemicals. Too much carbon dioxide or acidity and too little oxygen cause the respiratory rate to increase and vice versa.
A sensory cell or organ responsive to chemical stimuli
Increased tidal volume
Tidal volume is elevated by both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. During exercise, oxygen is depleted from your body, triggering a deeper tidal volume to compensate. The increased exhalation of carbon dioxide during exercise is a further factor in the increase of tidal volume
Tidal volume is the amount of air breathed in and out with each breath
500 cm3 when body is at rest

Apart from exercise, what else might impact an individuals tidal volume?
Musculoskeletal responses
The musculoskelal system consists of muscles, ligaments, bones and cartilage - (REMEMBER MUSCULAR SYSTEM A + P)
Increased blood supply
Increase in muscle pliability
Increased ROM
Muscle fibre micro tears
Acute musculoskeletal responses video exercise
In pairs, watch the following intense workout and highlight how, when and/or why the acute musculoskeletal responses might occur!
Increased blood supply
Increase in muscle pliability
Increased ROM
Muscle fibre mirco tears
Acute musculoskeletal responses
Energy system responses
REMEMBER - All movement requires energy and it is the duration and intensity of the activity that determines which energy system is utlised following ATP breakdown.
Phosphate creatine system - immediate e.g. explosive sports
Lactic acid system - short term e.g. 400m
Aerobic system - long term e.g. marthon running
Energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities
Creatine phosphate
Lactic acid
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