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Environmental Issues in the Florida Everglades

By Gabby Dodd p5
by

Gabby D

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Environmental Issues in the Florida Everglades

By: Gabby Dodd p5 Environmental Issues in the Florida Everglades the everglades are a natural region of subtropical wetlands that make up half of a large water shed. they are shaped by water and fire, and are often described as a "river of grass". the saw grass marshes are a apart of vast and complex ecosystem that contain, cypress swamps, mangroves, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rock land, rivers/lakes, and the marine life of Florida Bay. What Are the Everglades? sawgrass marsh Cypress Swamp Mangrove Hardwood Hammock Pine Rockland Kissimmee River Lake Okeechobee Marine life in Florida Bay The Florida Everglades in relative location are located in the far southeastern part of the United States bordering the states Georgia and Alabama, as well as the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Where Are They Located? The Florida Everglades are located
26° 0 0 N, 80° 42 0 W
26, -80.7 Latitude/ Longitude line. The Everglades begin near Orlando by the Kissimmee River and discharges water into lake Okeechobee, where water leaving the lake runs very slowly to the southern end of Florida Bay Where Are They
Located? Relative Location - Absolute Location- * While living in the Florida Everglades many people every year are faced with the devastation caused by natural disasters. These include hurricanes, wildfires, and flooding during the wet season (wet season =summer & dry season = winter).
*Being in a Semi Tropical zone, freezing temperatures rarely occur allowing palms and tropical plants to co-exist along the vegetation that thrives from the warmth of the sun.
* The Everglades are surrounded by thriving cities like Miami and Ft. Lauderdale, creating an equal balance for the people who live there between bustling city, and the great out doors.
*The everglades wetlands create a huge attraction for tourists, as well as birders, boaters and other environmental enthusiasts.
* The temperatures in The Everglades (and surrounding areas) reach increasingly hot temperatures during the wet season, making it almost unbearable to survive the summers without a pool and air conditioning.
* afternoon storms, or monsoons often happen in the afternoons in the summer creating lots of rain that in some areas, especially the everglades can create a large amount of flooding of landscapes that can damage houses and turn yards into swamps What Is It Like There? (Place) * Florida is divided into 4 different regions- West,North, Central, and South. The Everglades are located in the most southern region of Florida. The subtropical grass marsh covers more than 4,300 square miles of Florida's vast and complex landscape. Region * Overall Florida is located in the physical region of Atlantic/ Coastal plain * Florida is located in the Tropical zone of climate region Water Movement- Movement Some of the damage done from tropical storm Issac - Everglades Miami wildfire in Everglade National Park Water that flows through the wetlands region is subject to extreme seasonal variations. Water must travel through many canals and channels in order to get to the dense population that inhabits Florida. The wet season stretches from May to October and is responsible for 76% of the regions total rainfall. Inflow to this region is almost completely dependent upon this rain fall, because less than 1% of the total water that comes into the wetlands is groundwater. So, A very important channel called the Kissimmee River brings precipitation down and into Lake Okeechobee. This water system provides water for people during dry periods. Moving around the Everglades Many people (many tourists) travel through the everglades by boats or canoes to stay on water paths. The Reason? If a person wonders off a trail they risk falling into holes, getting lost, attacked by unwanted bugs/ animals, or face other things like allergies, and other bodily harm. How have humans interact with the Everglades? Human/ Environment The Issue Now....... *Shifted Flow pattern- A computer based model has shown that over 100 years there has been a drastic change in flow patterns of the water and its locations. The Effects of Past Water Management CERP
(Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan) A majority of the people against the plan are the people who have strong opinions or are involved in the pro - agriculture industry. These people believe that restoration is impossible and would rather use the natural resources being given to them, to keep their crops and farms alive. Although many are against these ideas agriculture controls a huge portion of Florida's economy and is part of the reason why the plan has not already gone through. Others who do not see the restoration as their "responsibility" are local politicians who are unaware of the effects the restoration plan may have on their contingency, such as high water prices and increased taxes, these ideas push away the importance of the central issue, of that of the Everglades, and its restoration. Some even say the restoration plan would cause more environmental issues Who Is Against The Plan? Why? Sustainability, or the overall survival of the Everglades must integrate urban, agriculture, and ecological interests. The Restoration plans although bold in there ideas have a completely different set of controls, those of political matters. The issue now lies in the hands of the government negotiating what is good for who, and what is bad for who. And what drastic changes will be made depending on what change will pay the price. The most influential issues in this project being, political and economical. Political Complications My Opinion Despite the issues with politics and economics regaurding the issues in the Everglades, Florida has come along way in the process of restoration making headway in new environmental experiments and studys, as wells as a slow process to restoration. although the everglades have been forever changed by mans distruction in the Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee, plans are being made to fix these issues. While some dissagree on the restoration plans and the fear of rising sea levels in the ocean form these plans, Decision are soon to be made to come up with a plan that will satisfy both sides of the argument. Conclusion Pictures Sources Cited Pictures Continued... * The Everglades serve an important role in human society that is often undervalued by most of the Southern Florida population. This role is more often called ecosystem services. The valuable water that is held within the Everglades provides clean drinking water for people, as well as the additional support the water gives for agricultural purposes. The water that is held in the Everglades gives agriculture an new source to be dependent on, taking the water from the wetlands and draining them to agricultural areas of more central area in Florida in order to provide the necessary water to grow crops that account for much of Florida's (and the Everglades) revenue in market sales (money). * By the early 1900's people soon discovered that the Everglades were almost unsustainable for human living due to the mass amounts of flooding, wildfires that spread rapidly, and the bugs that caused to many problems, not only for people, but for potential crops. Soon people started interacting with the environment of the Everglades and began the process of rapid draining that has led to a massive manipulation of the south Florida ecosystem. * Today manipulation continues through population settlement, hydrological re-engineering, land conversion, and finally the growing of the agriculture industry. -Picture shows a highway through the everglades as well as re-directed water flow * The issue now is that most of the original greater everglades system was drained in an effort to create a system of canals and dikes that would control the flow of water and accommodate to agriculture and urban development. This has put the Everglades in a new danger due to these canals and levees, because because they capture and divert the natural water in the wetlands and pumps them to faraway places to feed human needs of drinking water, irrigation, and flood control. Often too much water is withheld from the everglades during the wet season, or too much of it is diverted into it during the dry season disrupting the natural cycles of the water and the way animals live, which depend on these patterns. * With these new issues that have arose from from the constant destruction of the everglades, other things are happening to the water from the past management controls and water is being contaminated by pollutants, that has caused a disruption of habitat, and in water flow. *Over-drainage - Because drainage has continued, it has forced connecting canals to drain water from The Everglades National park *smaller flow- due to drainage there has been a smaller flow of water going to Florida Bay, during attempts to redirect flood waters, the water is being redirected to surrounding ocean waters of either the Atlantic on the east or the Gulf of Mexico on the west. *Back pumping of water from urban areas and storm water management. *soil depletion- from the drainage that has happened in the wet
lands, the soil beneath the water has been exposed to air causing
it to break down faster than it should. title slide 1- "Travel & Outdoors." Best Places To Take Visiting Relatives « CBS Miami. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://miami.cbslocal.com/top-lists/best-place-to-take-relatives-when-they-come-to-visit/>.

" LocalNomad Blog." LocalNomad Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012.
<http://blog.localnomad.com/en/2012/06/20/everglades-safari-park-florida/>.

Slide 2- http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/Everglades/Everglades.html

"Wetlands." Wetlands. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/wetlands.htm>.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_mangrove-everglades_natl_park.jpg

"Florida Habitats & Ecosystems." Florida's Nature. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://floridasnature.com/florida_habitats.htm>.

http://www.sunshineserpents.com/Captive%20Breeding%20Projects/Miami%20Corn%20Snake.htm

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857403000600

"Lake Okeechobee." Lake Okeechobee Fishing Guide Captain Mark Shepard. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://www.lakeokeechobeeguide.com/lake-okeechobee-fishing-guide/lake-okeechobee/%20>.

"Page Not Found? - MarineBio.org." Page Not Found? - MarineBio.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Oct. 2012. <http://marinebio.org/marinebio/news/letters/11.asp>.

Slide 3-
http://toolserver.org/~geohack/geohack.php?pagename=Everglades&params=26.0_N_-80.7_E_region:US-FL_scale:2000000 Brian Lapointe, senior scientist at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution in Fort Pierce, warns that fragile coral reefs in the Florida Keys will die as a result of increased Everglades runoff, something that the restoration plans to do. What is the plan? CERP 's is to give the basic frame work that is needed in order to restore, protect, and preserve the water in the Florida Everglades. CERP 's plan is" designed to capture, store and redistribute fresh water previously lost to tide and to regulate the quality, quantity, timing and distribution of water flows." The organization plans to use the 7.8 billion dollar estimated cost of the total plan to restore the everglades back to a near natural state where the water flow of the everglades can reach back out to the Florida bay restoring the natural cycle of water and animal migration that once took place here. The restoration project also authorizes The Corps of Engineers to return to the canal and make amends to the damaged caused originally by the canals and "channels" that were created in effort to pump water to Urban areas and Agricultural areas both inside and outside of the everglades area. The major Plan components are:

Surface Water Storage Reservoirs
Water Preserve Areas
Management of Lake Okeechobee as an Ecological Resource
Improved Water Deliveries to the Estuaries
Underground Water Storage
Treatment Wetlands
Improved Water Deliveries to the Everglades
Removal of Barriers to Sheetflow
Storage of Water in Existing Quarries
Reuse of Wastewater
Pilot Projects
Improved Water Conservation
Additional Feasibility Studies ''the Plan will result in a sustainable south Florida by restoring the ecosystem, ensuring clean and reliable water supplies, and providing flood protection.'' * I believe that the right plan for the Everglades is CERP 's plan. * I think that CERP 's plan will help improve the Everglades by giving back water to the places that need it, and help reduce the overflow of water in other areas. * the 7.8 billion dollars needed to give full efforts into the project is worth it, because in the long run the money will help save what money could never full replace- our environment. Also- it would slowly help humans and animals in the long run because with more flowing water into the everglades and the use of purified water- people will benefit substantially from the restoration process as well as the ecosystems in that environent * I think the politicians need to pay more attention to the issue * CERP needs to come up with a strong legislative plan to bring to higher government powers in order to get the project rolling if they really want a change to happen * I do agree with ideas that in order to come up with a final plan, the restoration needs to include a solution for everyone involved in the issue Pictures on Slide 4-"Everglades National Park." Location Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.everglades.national-park.com/location.htm>.

"Deal to Close Sugar Plant and Preserve 187,000 Acres Should Benefit Everglades National Park." Commentary, News, and Life in America's Parks. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nationalparkstraveler.com/2008/06/deal-close-sugar-plant-and-preserve-187-000-acres-should-benefit-everglades-national-park>.

http://www.123rf.com/photo_11346801_political-map-of-united-states-with-the-several-states-where-florida-is-highlighted.html



Picture on slide 5-
https://www4.myfloridacounty.com/regions/

Pictures on slide 6-
http://www.naplesnews.com/photos/galleries/2012/aug/26/tropical-storm-isaac-everglades-city-chokoloskee/246808/

"SEO Company Miami Florida." SEO Company Miami Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.andelain.com/seo-company-miami-florida/>. pictures on slide 7-

http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/maidment/grad/dugger/GLADES/glades.html

Pictures on slide 8-
http://egnationalpark8.blogspot.com/

picture on slide 9-
http://www.nrdc.org/water/default.asp

pictures on slide 11-
"Responding to Sea Level Rise Under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan | CAKE: Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange." Responding to Sea Level Rise Under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan | CAKE: Climate Adaptation Knowledge Exchange. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.cakex.org/case-studies/2836%20>.

picture on 12-"404." 404. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.evergladesplan.org/pm/progr_int_schedule.aspx>.

picture on 13-
"Water « EcoWatch: Uniting the Voice of the Grassroots Environmental Movement." Water « EcoWatch: Uniting the Voice of the Grassroots Environmental Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://ecowatch.org/p/water/page/6/>. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have come up with a draft environmental impact statement in order to fix the problems they have caused over the years through the building of canals and other environmental issues that have been caused through their engineering in the everglades.
Below: is a link that will bring up a PDF of their impact statement for the plan to help restore the Everglades

Website- http://www.evergladesplan.org/pm/pm_docs/ertp/022511_ertp_01_main_report.pdf Environmental Impact Statement picture on conclusion slide
"The South Florida Everglades Restoration Project." The South Florida Everglades Restoration Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/maidment/grad/dugger/GLADES/glades.html>. Websites "The South Florida Everglades Restoration Project." The South Florida Everglades Restoration Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/maidment/grad/dugger/GLADES/glades.html>.

"Everglades 'restoration' Causing Major Environmental Problems." Heartlander Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://news.heartland.org/newspaper-article/2002/10/01/everglades-restoration-causing-major-environmental-problems>.


"Florida Coastal Everglades LTER - Everglades Environmental Issues & Restoration." Florida Coastal Everglades LTER - Everglades Environmental Issues & Restoration. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://fcelter.fiu.edu/about_us/everglades/restoration/>.

"Save the Everglades." Environment Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.environmentflorida.org/>.

"Florida Everglades." NRDC:. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nrdc.org/water/conservation/qever.asp>.

"Environmental Issues in Florida." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 July 2012. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_Florida>. http://www.garygoforth.net/Environmental%20Impacts.pdf


Park:, Issues Currently Faced by Everglades National. National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 02 Oct. 2012. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nps.gov/ever/parknews/currentissues.htm>.

"Welcome to the Official Website of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)." Welcome to the Official Website of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.evergladesplan.org/>. Video YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded>.
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