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Transcript of SOCIAL SCIENCE
Unit 1: The landscapes of Spain and Europe
The location and relief of Spain
Most of the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla (autonomous cities on the North of Africa
a. North: Cantabrian Sea, France and Andorra.
b. West: Atlantic Ocean and Portugal.
c. East: Mediterranean Sea.
d. South: Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Morocco.
The location of Spain
Other European coastal landforms
1. Gulfs (large bays). N (Bothnia); S (Lion and Genoa).
2. Capes (high points of land that sticks out into sea or ocean). N (North Cape and Cape Reykjanes; S (Finisterre, St. Vincent and Mattapan.
3. Fjords (valleys into which seawater enters). Scandinavian Peninsula).
4. Straits (narrow waterways that connect 2 bodies of water). Strait of Gibraltar.
The landforms of Spain
a. The Inner Plateau
b. Two mountains chains on the IP.
c. Four mountains ranges around the IP.
d. Five mountain ranges beyond the IP.
e. Two river basins beyond the IP.
f. Two Archipelagos.
The Inner Plateau
- Extensive plain that covers the centre of the IP.
- Autonomous Communities: C-L, C-LM, M and Ext.
- Average altitude: 600 m
- 3 Rivers cross it E-W: Duero, Tajo and Guadiana.
Two mountain chains on the IP
a. Central Mountain Chain: 2,000 metres high, 3 mountain ranges (Gata, Gredos and Guadarrama); Northern sub-plateau and the Southern sub-plateau.
b. Mountains of Toledo: In the southern sub-plateau, low mountains; separate Tajo and Guadiana river valleys.
Mountains surrounding the IP
- NW: Mountains of León.
- N: Cantabrian Range.
- E: Iberian Mountain Chain.
- S: Sierra Morena.
Mountains beyond the IP
- NW: Galician Massif.
- N: Basque Mountains, Pyrenees
- NE: Catalan Coastal Chain.
- SE: Betic Mountain Chain.
River basins beyond the IP
- Ebro river basin. NE. It flows from W-E.
- Guadalquivir river basin: SW. It flows from E-W.
- The Balearic Islands (E): Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Formentera, Cabrera and Dragonera.
- Canary Islands (W of Africa and Atlantic Ocean): La Palma, El hierro, La Gomera, Tenerife, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote and Fuerteventura; Teide (3,718 m)
a. Cantabrian Coast: high, rocky, few beaches.
b. Atlantic coast: Galicia (high and rocky); Andalusia (low and sandy); Canary Islands (cliffs).
c. Mediterranean coast: extensive beaches and rocky areas (longest coast).
The location and relief of Europe
- Second smallest continent in the world.
- Entirely located in the Northern Hemisphere.
- Borders: N (Artic Ocean); W (Atlantic Ocean); E (Ural Mountains and Caspian Sea); S (Mediterranean Sea).
- Northern Europe: 2,500 m and rounded peaks.
Scandinavian mountains and Ural mountains (border Europe and Asia).
- Southern Europe: Highest mountains.
Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Balkans, Caucasus (Mount Elbrus, 5,642 m)
- Extend across central and eastern parts of Europe.
- Great European Plain: N (North and Baltic sea); S (Alps and Carpathians). Low mountain ranges: Central Massif and the Vosges (France).
- Eastern European Plain: N (White and Barents Sea);
E (Ural Mountains).
The European coastline
- Extensive, 40,000 km, irregular and jagged.
- Surrounded by:
a. Oceans: N (Artic Ocean); W (Atlantic Ocean).
b. Seas: N (North Sea, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea);
S (Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Sea).
European peninsulas and islands
Peninsula. Area of land connected to a larger area of land on one side, but surrouned by sea on all other sides.
- N: Kola, Scandinavian and Jutland.
- S: Italian, Iberian and Balkan.
Island. Completely surrounded by the sea.
- N: Iceland, Great Britain and Ireland.
- S: Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Crete and Cyprus.