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Copy of Argumentation

An introduction to the elements of argumentative writing.
by

Terry Krieger-James

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Argumentation

ARGUMENTATION
Three Critical Elements:
1. The Claim
The claim is the
ANCHOR
of your essay.
AKA:
thesis
argument
premise
conclusion
proposition
hypothesis
assertion
There are 4 types of claims:
Fact
Judgment/Value
policy
Definition/Classification
Don't worry about that so much as what a claim does...which is:
With your group, create a definition of what you believe it means to
"anchor" an essay.
2. The Grounds
AKA:
Evidence
Support
Proof
Data
Facts
Statistics
Expert Quotes
Eye Witness Account
Reasoning
Physical Evidence
Reports
Findings
"Grounds" refers to the proof or evidence an arguer offers to support their claim.
Examples:
"I made dinner, so you can do the dishes."
What is the claim in this statement?
What are the grounds?
Write your answers on your group sheet.
"I'm a vegetarian. One reason is that I feel bad for the animals. Another is for my own health."
What is the claim?
What are the grounds?
Write your answers on the group answer sheet.
3. The Warrant
The claim is, in essence, the side you want to argue, the message you want to portray, what you want to convince people of.
See if you can recognize/verbalize the claims being made in the following commercials. Write those claims with your group.
1.
2.
3.
Your Grounds are all about support!
You must ask yourself:
What is my proof?
How do I know?
Why do I know that?
So, if I write:
"It looks like rain; the barometer is falling."
What is my claim & what are my grounds?
(write your group's answers on the sheet)
Clue words for indicating the presence of grounds:
Because
Since
Given that
etc.
for example:
"Airports should X-ray all luggage
BECAUSE
a bomb could be placed in a checked bag."
The Warrant connects the claim to the grounds.
AKA:
The "so what?"
The implicit (unstated) meaning of the argument
Explanation
Reasoning
Assumptions
Commentary
The inferential leap
There are 2 kinds of warrants:
Warrants are based on the three rhetorical appeals.
Warrants are intended to form a mental connection between the claim and the grounds.
And Some only HINT at the connection:
"That dog is probably nice. It's a golden retriever."
claim: the dog is nice
grounds: it is a golden retriever
warrant: ?
The warrant isn't specifically stated, rather, it is an implicit generalization:
Most golden retrievers are nice dogs.
“Muffin is running a temperature.
I bet she has an infection.”
Claim: Muffin's sick
Grounds: She's got a temperature
Warrant: ?
This warrant is an example of sign reasoning; a fever is a reliable sign of an infection
Some warrants explicitly
state that connection:
"Fred is a bad man. He killed someone. Good people do not kill other people."
Claim: Fred is bad
Grounds: He killed someone
Warrant: ?
If killing people is something good people DON'T do, then Fred must be bad.
"Fred is a good man. He killed someone. He risked his own life protecting his family from a bad man. That's just what good people do."
Claim: Fred is good
Grounds: He killed someone
Warrant: ?
If good people risk their own lives to protect their families, then Fred must be good.
What do these examples
tell you about your warrant?
Write your responses on the group notes.
COMING UP:
Qualifiers & Rebuttals
Now, let's return to our commercials.
You've already identified the claims. Let's see if you can identify the
GROUNDS
and the
WARRANTS
Based on your rhetorical triangle
Ethos
Logos
Pathos
and your knowledge of the 3 primary elements of a good argument,
are these good arguments?
Yes or no? Why or why not?
Write your responses on your group sheet.
Full transcript