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Native American Civil Rights

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by

Allie Yan

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Native American Civil Rights

Battle of the Little Bighorn
In 1876 Thousands of Native Americans, led by Sitting Bull, left their reservation to fight against the US Army which tried to keep them in their reservations.
Allotment Act of 1887
-Each Native American becomes some
land to work on.
-The US Government is still the owner
of the land.
- The Government tried to make farmers
out of the native Americans
Residential Schools
Tribal courts did not have authority to hear Indian cases against non-indians for trust land damage
Formed in 1968
Against high unemployment, slum housing, and racist treatment
People from AIM led the siege at Wounded Knee
CREATED BY: Allie Yan, Kyle White, Thilo Kreins
Pre-Civil Rights
Disease
Enslavement
Relocation and Land Seizure
Trail of Tears
Indian War
Wounded Knee
Major Events
Leaders & Organizations
Court Cases & Legislature
Important Leaders and Organizations
American Indian Movement
Modern Day Leader/Organizations
What's happening today?
Court Cases and Legislature
Native American Court Cases and Legislature that impacted their Civil Rights Movement
Talton v. Mayes (1896)
Cherokee Indian murders fellow Cherokee
sentenced to death by the Cherokee
Appealed that Cherokee did not follow the Constitution in court proceeding
Justices ruled 8 - 1 against Mayes
Affirmed Cherokee sovereignty predates the Constitution
Individual protection rights (5th Amendment) do not apply to tribal government
Post 1970 (Social-economic)
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
Indian Citizenship Act 1924
Gave citizenship to all Native Americans born on U.S soil
Crushed previous rulings of Native Americans ineligibility because of their tribal obligations
Tribal-U.S dual citizenship
Mixed reception
SUCCESS?
SUCCESS?
Battle of little Bighorn: Indians won, however they were still forced onto reservations later on. Both Sitting Bull and Crazy horse were killed
More success in the 1960's and 1970's with AIM
Tribal Supreme Court Project (NARF)
ongoing efforts to strengthen litigation of the Tribal Courts
collective database of cases
increased legal assistance for cases
filing various motions, writs, briefs, research
Connection to the 1960's
Mimicked Civil Rights of the 60's in many ways
citizenship/vote
housing/economic situations
discrimination
also faced discrimination, prejudice, and racism
Jim Crow Laws affected them too
lived in a separate society
suffered similar social economic problems with African Americans
in some points they were similar to "the Nation of Islam "
REMAINING PROBLEMS
Although the Native Americans have improved their situation in the last decades, there are still larger alcohol-, drug-and disease-problems then in white Societies.
Native American Rights Today
Tribal Supreme Court Project
Tribal sovereignty
Social and economic issues
discrimination
unequal employment & education

Before the 1960s
After the 1960s
Major Events
What is the Native American Rights Movement?
Native American Civil Rights
Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)
Affirmed Talton v. Mayes ruling that tribal government had self-government attributes
Established tribal courts as legitimate courts
Imposed a large portion of the Constitution upon tribal governments "Indian Bill of Rights"
banned tribes from enacting laws that opposed certain parts of the Constitution (liberties, court proceedings)
(AIM)
AIM Button/symbol
Indian Tribal Sovereignty (Pre-1900)
Citizenship, Rights
1934 Indian Reorganization Act
Secured rights of Native Americans
Reversal of allotment policies
Restored tribes as managers of tribal assets
Re-establishment of tribal governments
Helped tribes economically
Over 2 million acres returned
The Indian Termination Policy
Belief that assimilation was optimal
1940's - 60's
Dismantled over 100 tribes
Over 1 million acres of trust land removed from protection
Liable to state law
land reverts to private ownership
Devastated tribal culture and economy
In relation to tribal sovereignty
Russel Means
Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)
Gave tribes "Indian Bill of Rights"
recognized the failure of assimilation
A Leader of the AIM
Led the group that took over Wounded Knee SD and occupied it for 71 days
Also Part of the Longest Walk in 1978 to protest anti-Indian legislation
United States v. Kagama
Reaffirms the Indian Appropriations Act (1871)
Congress has plenary power (complete control)
Did not recognize tribes as independent nations
Justices of the Talton v. Mayes Supreme Court Case
Celebrating the Indian Civil Rights Act (1968)
Crow Dog
Friends of Indians
Roosevelt signing the IRA 1934
Yakima Tribe Reservation 1950's
Tribes can apply for a grant
Tribes could manage their own funds without federal interference in their picture
economic advantage
President Ford meeting with Native Americans during Native American Awareness Week mentions the act after Nixon's resignation
Indian Child Welfare Act
Alarming rates of American Indian children removed from their homes
Endangered the survival of Indian culture
Native American children removed from a Native American household will be placed into another Native American household
Memorial March for Indian children lost in the adoption process prior to ICWA
Oliphant v. Suquamish Tribe
ruled that Indian law cannot punish non-Indian people in Indian related cases
Thurgood Marshall and Burger's dissent
sanctity of Indian sovereignty
Assimilation of American Indians in traditional American Culture
Assimilation of Native American
school children
Native American Rights Legislature Present
Tribal Law and Order Act (2010)
alarming rates of unreported, not investigated, not prosecuted crimes
gave tribes more resources, authority, and information
54% increase in prosecutions 2011-2012
Atkinson Trading Co. v Shirley (2000)
Courts ruled against Indians
Couldn't tax businesses on Indian land
Nevada v. Hicks (2000)
Religious Freedoms
90's several laws passed permitting use of peyote for religion
several laws still ban other practices
The 1960s
The Future for Native American Rights
Land
52 million acres
worsening environment
impossible to live off farming
Infrastructure
lack of electricity, telephones, internet
traffic system prevent business interest
Unemployment
50 % - 70 %
over 80%
lowest income of all ethnic groups
Lack of Education
Less than a high school diploma
29.4% outside Indians
39.4% reservation Indians
Highest Rates of:
high school drop out
suicide
teenage suicide
High Rates of:
teen pregnancy (3rd)
infant/child mortality (2nd)

Generalized Social Economic Problems
Current Issues to be Addressed
Societal Segregation/ Discrimination
Social Economic Problems
Prejudice/discrimination lead to:
poor education
lower income
unemployment
poverty living standards
White-only excluded all minorities,
including Native Americans
Future Solutions
restoration of Indian tribal sovereignty
economic stability/prosperity
increase quality and encouragement of education
increase infrastructure (technology & transportation system)
economic growth
better relationship between U.S and the Tribes
Modern protest for Native American Rights
Shirley awarded the "Chief of Chiefs Lifetime Acheivement Award for his contributions
to Native American law enforcement
Peyote cactus contains a hallucinogen used in Native American religious rituals
Thurgood Marshall and Chief Justice Warren E. Burger
-Native Americans are forced to attend to
these residential schools.
-They were thought in Western culture to
get away of Indian traditions
-The last schools closed in the 1980s
The Tribal Supreme Court Project is headed by NARF
Pine Ridge Reservation is one
of the poorest regions in the U.S

30% population homeless
80% unemployed
60% substandard housing
A little Sioux girl from Pine Ridge Reservation
Only 23% of Sioux children graduate high school
17% go on to college
A man in Pine Ridge Reservation

20% have cars
44% lack kitchens
55% lack phones
Termination policy
Russel Means
-The reservations shouldn't be controlled by the tribes
anymore
-It was the aim to cancel the tribes and to integrate
them into the American system
Early Leaders (pre-1900)
Relocation Policy
A Native American is reassured by Obama that he intends to continue working with them at a press conference
-In 1956 the government decides to give
better possiblities to Native Americans
to get better education
35 000 Native Americans move out of reservations
The end of Termination Policy
Sitting Bull
In 1970, President Nixon stops Termination Policy formal
Native American chief of the Sioux tribe
Named sitting bull because of his courage
Leader in the Battle of Little Bighorn
Inspiration to many people soon to come
Native American Languages Act of 1990
This Act obligates the government to support the receipt of the Indian Language
Crazy Horse
Named for his battle skills
Resisted being forced onto reservations
Fought to prevent Americans from invading his land
Also a leader in the Battle of Little Bighorn
Wounded Knee incident
-In 1973 Native Americans occupied the city for 71
days to make attention of the problems in the Pine
Ridge Indian Reservation
-They were leaded by AIM, American Indian
Movement
Sitting Bull
Crazy Horse
Longest Walk
5-Month long March from San Francisco to the Washington monument
Planned by AIM
American Indians felt water and land rights were being threatened
1978
Protestors in the long walk
Native American Rights Fund (NARF)
Non Profit organization formed in 1970
NARF has five main goals
Asking for donations
Wilma Mankiller
First woman chief of the Cherokee nation
Inspired by AIM's attempt to retake Aclatraz
She wanted to improve health care, education system, and government for the Cherokee nation
Wilma Mankiller
AIM Today
Held the Longest Walk 2 in 2008
Same route as 1978
University of California Berkeley "denied protection of Native Ancestral remains sacred objects"
Many organizations like NARF are asking for donations
-less success, the government doesn't
support Native American Tribes
Before the 1960s:
In the 1960s:
-new laws against the Native Americans
are pushed trough the congress
After the 1960s:
-Native Americans reach some of their
goals, they get their rights back and are
supported by the government
The Native American Rights Movement was a movement similar to the African American Civil Rights movement however, activists had both similar and different goals in mind
Bibliography
ask Kyle
Hey i'm bored in debate and I want to make it seem like I'm being productive.
Full transcript