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What does Literature mean ?

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by

mashael ibrahim

on 21 February 2014

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Transcript of What does Literature mean ?

What does Literature mean ?
What is the purpose of literature ?
"to please and to instruct; to seduce and to educate; to entertain and to teach"
To express emotions or ideas.
Literature
Fiction
(Short stories- Novels)
Poetry
Drama
(Plays)
The History of literature
Short Story:
a piece of narrative that is limited in scope.
Elements of a short story:
Plot.
Character.
Setting.
Point of View.
Style, tone and language.
Symbol, allegory and myth.
Theme.
Plot :
The way in which a story's events are arranged.
Beginning
(Exposition)
Climax
End
(Resolution)
Stages of Plot
Climax:
the point of greatest tension.
"
Deus ex Machina
(literally "god out of a machine") The phrase describes an artificial, or improbable, character, device, or event introduced suddenly in a work of fiction or drama to resolve a situation or untangle a plot (such as an angel suddenly appearing to solve problems). The term is a negative one, and it often implies a lack of skill on the part of the writer."
A plot has a conflict (or many conflicts).
Conflict:
it refers to the struggle between opposite forces. (Protagonist and Antagonist).
Protagonist:
the main character.
Antagonist:
the force that the main character struggles with (a character- event- nature- protagonist's mind.
Order and sequence:
Chronological order:
refers to presenting each events in which it actually takes a place.
Medias res:
starting in the middle of the story then going back in time to explain the story's events.
Flashback:
remember in earlier event.
Foreshadowing:
event, character or object that hints at things to come.
A character:
is a fictional representation of a person.
Round character Vs. Flat character
Change
Does not change
Minor characters:
foil character:
are supportive characters used to highlight the main character by presenting a contrast with him/her.
stock character:
are easily identified characters.
Characters are moved by
motivation
.
Motivation:
the reason behind a character's behavior.
Setting:
the location in where the story takes a place (it could be real or imaginative).
Narrator =
Point of View:
the vantage point from which events are told.

"All stories are told by a
narrator"

The narrator is
NOT
the writer!!

If the narrator of a story has the same beliefs/ideas of the writer, the term
Persona
is used.

Persona literally means "mask"
Types of point of view
First-person narrator
Third-person narrator
Major character
Minor character
(They are both unreliable, subjective & create irony)
Dramatic Irony
Situational Irony
Verbal Irony
Omniscient narrator
Limited-omniscient
narrator
(They are both objective)
Definitions:
Irony:
a discrepancy between what is said and what the readers believe.
Dramatic Irony:
occurs when the character perceives less than the readers do.
Situational Irony:
occurs when what happens is the opposite of what the readers expected.
Verbal Irony:
occurs when the character says one thing but actually means another thing.
Omniscient Narrator:
a narrator who all-knowing.
Limited-omniscient Narrator:
is a narrator that focuses only on a sing character's experience.

Style:
the way in which a writer uses language.
Tone:
the attitude of the narrator or writer toward the subject matter.

Diction
Formal
Informal
Imagery:
words and phrases that describes what is seen, smelled, tasted or touched.

Metaphors:
is comparing two things without using "such" and "like".
Similes:
is comparing two things with using "such" and "like".
Personifications:
is giving an object human's characteristics.
Allusions:
is referring to familiar historical, cultural, literary texts or figures.
Hyperbole:
is exaggeration (is giving a character or event more than it deserves).
Understatement:
is giving a character or event less than it deserves.

Figures of Speech:
Symbol:
is a person, object, action, place or event that has a complex meaning in addition to its literal meaning.
Allegory:
is a story with two parallel levels of meanings.
Myth:
is a story that is central to a culture.

Theme:
the central idea of a literary work.
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