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The Civil War, 1856-1865

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Robert Baker

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of The Civil War, 1856-1865

Confederate state militias seized federal property in the South
Forts (i.e. Ft. Pulaski, GA); Courthouses; Post offices;

When Lincoln came into office on March 4, 1861, only two forts in the South remained in Union hands

The Confederacy, the name adopted by the states which had seceded, demanded the surrender of Ft. Sumter (S.C.)

If Lincoln ordered the Fort to fire, he fires the first shot, prompting the rest of the South to secede; if he evacuates the fort, Lincoln treats the Confederacy as a legitimate nation

Fort Sumter
The First Wave
South Carolina

Buchanan (President) did nothing, he said secession was illegal, but that the federal government didn’t have the power to stop it.

States in order of secession
Hero, Martyr, or Terrorist?
The raid failed

Local soldiers killed 8 of his men

U.S. Marines, led by Robert E. Lee, raced to Harper’s Ferry, stormed the engine house, killed two more and captured Brown

The Raid
Buchanan – 45% popular vote
Won entire South except Maryland
Fremont – 33% (11 of 16 free states)
Fillmore – 22% (won Maryland)

- Meaning –

Democrats won with a candidate that gained Northern support without alienating the South
The Know Nothings were in decline
Republicans were now a political force
MOST IMPORTANT: The election showed that Northern candidates did not need the South to become President

1856 Election Results
April 12, 1861 at 4:30 AM, Confederate batteries thundered away at Fort Sumter

South Carolinians cheered as the Confederate troops bombarded the fort with over 4,000 rounds

Finally, Major Anderson (Union) surrendered the fort

The Union marched out - allowed to keep arms and fly colors (The Honors of War)

Firing on Fort Sumter
Lincoln does not reinforce or abandon the fort. He sends “Food for hungry men,”
This forced Jefferson Davis to make a decision – attack or relent

Jefferson Davis, recently elected President of CSA, knows to do nothing damages the image of the Confederacy as a sovereign nation. If he attacked, he could turn a peaceful secession into a war….Davis reluctantly chose war

Lincoln’s victory is the catalyst that brought on secession
Southern Politicians felt that if Lincoln won, slavery would end
After 1860, the South felt it did not have a voice in the national government anymore

States’ Rights began to mean complete independence
Fear of losing a way of life,
Saw secession as a way to keep the way of life and preserve the slave labor system

Secession Begins
Lincoln Wins!!!!!! – with a plurality of the votes (less than 50% of popular vote)
Lincoln – 180 electoral votes, 1,866, 452 pop. Votes
Breckinridge – 72 electoral votes, 847,953 pop. Votes
Bell – 39 electoral votes, 592,906 pop. Votes
Douglas – 12 electoral votes, 1,382, 713 pop. Votes
Lincoln was a sectional president, all free states voted for him, none of the Southern states voted for him

Brown was convicted for treason against the state of Virginia and hanged

Many people, North and South (Including Abe Lincoln) condemned Brown as a murderer. They were horrified by his Brown's actions.
Many did admire him
Eventually, many in the North came to respect his motives - viewed him as a martyr for the abolitionist movement

Southerners were outraged and terrified
They saw him as a terrorist - a man attempting to incite slave rebellions
vocal northern supporters did little to calm the tension

Many, even some Union supporters called for secession.

Oct. 16, 1859 Brown led a group of white and black men, including his sons, in a raid on the federal armory at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (Today, WV)
To arms slaves for the rebellion
16 white men, 3 free blacks, 1 freed slave, and 1 fugitive slave

One of the last events which further polarized the nation over the issue of slavery and pushed the North and the South toward open conflict

John Brown
Ardent Abolitionist who decided to fight slavery with violence and killing
believed he was chosen by God to end slavery
Brown decided to begin a slave war by seizing arms and munitions and leading slaves in a great rebellion

John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry (1859)
Lincoln loses BUT the election thrusts Lincoln into national spotlight for the 1860 election

Campaign for Senator of Illinois (debate is largely over slavery)
Republican – Abraham Lincoln
Opposed slavery as “a moral, a social, and a political wrong.”
Didn’t want to abolish slavery, but stop its extension
Democrat – Stephen Douglas
Believed in popular sovereignty and supported the Dred Scott decision
Freeport Doctrine - the people have the ultimate power to decide the question of slavery

Lincoln Douglas Debates
Four Candidates
Democrats (Split)
Northern Dems. – Stephen Douglas
Southern Dems. – John C. Breckinridge
Former Know Nothings, Southern Whigs, and Moderate Northerners formed….
Constitutional Union Party – John Bell - mostly ignored the issue of slavery
Republicans – Abraham Lincoln

Election of 1860
Democrat – James Buchanan – Pennsylvania – had Southern friends
Know Nothings –Millard Fillmore (Split), some support Fremont
Republicans – John C. Fremont – mapped Oregon trail, led troops to California during the Mexican-American War

Election of 1856
Zachary Taylor -Whig(1849-1850)
Death by diarrhea, prepared to hold Union together by force
Millard Fillmore – Whig (1850-1852)
Supported Compromise of 1850, outraged some Northerners (Fugitive Slave Law)
Franklin Pierce – Democrat (1853- 1857)
Suspected of being pro-South (slave expansion) made gestures to buy Cuba
James Buchanan – Democrat (1857 – 1860)
Weak, couldn’t maintain sectional balance, seemed Pro-South, didn’t stop secession, Only Bachelor President

Inconsequential Presidents
President Lincon
In his first inaugural address, Lincoln attempted to conciliate Southerners
He promised that he was not going to abolish slavery
He only wanted to preserve the Union
Urged Southerners to "rejoin" the Union
Lincoln did not believe states had a right to secede
He saw what the Southern states were doing as a rebellion
As a result, he never recognized the Confederacy as a separate country.
The Build Up to the Civil War
Primary Cause of the War
Other Issues
North and the South were different societies
Culturally difference from their inception
Think about the colonies - who/what started which colonies and how did those colonies develop
Disagreement over slavery
Not necessarily the existence of slavery but its expansion and use
Racism was (is) a national issue - not merely a Southern one
Very Stupid Politicians
"Fire Eaters"
The Compromisers were dead or dying - no one to save the Union in peril
Secondary Cause
Economic Sectionalism
North had 90% of the country's industry
Commercial Economy - Wage Labor
South had 10% of U.S. Industry
Agricultural Society - "King Cotton"
Used slave labor
Generally, the South was against and the North was in favor
Expansion of Slavery
States Rights
Nullification Crisis - John C. Calhoun and the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
Secondary Cause
Political Representation
Causes of the Civil War
A number of issues ignited the Civil War: states’ rights, the role of the federal government, the preservation of the Union, the economy; but all were inextricably bound to the institution of slavery.
Today, most professional historians agree that slavery and the status of African Americans were at the heart of the crisis that plunged the U.S. into a civil war from 1861 to 1865.
Numerous documents from that era, written by Southerners, tell us this
That is not to say the average Confederate soldier fought to preserve slavery or the average Union soldier went to war to end slavery.
The North’s goal in the beginning was the preservation of the Union, not emancipation.
Political power of slave states vs free states
There was a declining Southern influence in Congress
Economic Disparity Between the North and the South
The Southern Economy
Manufacturing and Food Production
Manufacturing Resources
8% of U.S. industrial output
minimal resources to produce weapons
Food Production
Less than half as much as the North produced
The South's agricultural economy focused more on raw goods for exportation
Employment & Property Ownership and Population
Employment & Property Ownership
Though many Southerners owned slaves, the economy of the South depended on the production of cash crops such as cotton, corn, rice, and tobacco, which required human labor and depended on slavery
29% of U.S. population
67% free, 33% slave
Consider these facts when thinking about WHO will fight the war
29% of U.S. railroad network
inefficient railway transport system
What does this mean for troop movement?
Their food, supplies, etc.?

Exports & Views on Tariffs
66% of U.S. Exports
Favored low (or no) tariffs on imported goods to keep the prices of manufactured goods affordable
The Northern Economy
Manufacturing Resources and Food Production
Manufacturing Resources
92% of U.S. industrial output
Generous resources to produce weapons and other military supplies and equipment
Food Production
More than twice as much as the South produced
Employment & Property Ownership and Population
Employment & Property Ownership
Many citizens worked for someone else and owned no property.
Even in large-scale farming regions, machines reduced the need for agricultural workers
71% of the U.S. population
1% slave
What do these numbers mean when raising an army?
71% of U.S. railroad networks
efficient railway transport system
What does this meant for moving troops?
Their supplies, equipment, food, etc.?
Exports & Views on Tariffs
34% of U.S. exports
Favored high tariffs on imported foreign goods to protect northern industries and workers' jobs
Industry and Trade
Military Advantages and Disadvantages
North vs South
90 vessels
3 ready to go
Cavalry (Important, Eyes of the Army)
Took a long time to train
North is behind - catches up by 1863
North has Industry

Does not have one
Did get incredible generalship
Does not have one
South is limited due to lack of industry
Cavalry (Important, Eyes of the Army)
South has more experienced riders
No Industry
Did have Joiah Gorges, the Chief of Ordinance for the CSA
No Industry
Had to import or capture weapons
Wartime industry met the need

The Civil War: 1861 to 1862
After Fort Sumter
In response to the bombardment for Fort Sumter, Lincoln called for volunteer armies from each state
Within two months, more Southern slave states seceded
Thoughts on why?

The Second Wave:
North Carolina
Terminology and Flags
United States of America
North (Northern)
Yanks (Billy Yank)
Confederate States of America
South (Southern)
Rebels or Rebs
Johnny Reb
1st Manassas (1st Bull Run) - July 21, 1861
1st Major Battle of the Civil War
Confederate Victory
Battle resembled two armed mobs running into each other
Each side expected a swift, Napoleonic Victory which would end the war
This battle proved that assessment laughable - but Generals kept trying
People came out to watch the battle - they set up picnics
The Union had the upper hand early on
Confederates counterattacked and won the field
Too exhausted and disorganized to pursue or take advantage of the victory
General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, West Point
His actions led to victory at 1st Manassas
Jackson led men to the field at Henry House Hill
He demonstrated bravery, rode in front of his men with total apathy for the bullets whizzing past his head
General Barnard Bee, in an attempt to rally his men, pointed to Jackson and said, "There stands Jackson like a stone wall. Rally behind the Virginians!"
The name stuck

Winfield Scott and the Anaconda Plan
Served in the War of 1812
Major figure in the Mexican-American War
Too old to command troops in battle but his mind was still sharp
Asked Robert E. Lee to command the Federal Army
After much internal struggle, Lee turned him down and sided with Virginia (His state)
Helped teach Lincoln how to win
Architect of the
Anaconda Plan
In the West
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
First major Union Victories
"Nothing but unconditional surrender will suffice"
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
West Point Graduate
served in the Mexican American War
Failed in Civilian Life
Bill Collector
Real Estate
Store Clerk
Seemed to be good at soldiering though
Battle of Shiloh
In Tennessee (April 6, 1862)
Union Troops gathered at the town
did not set up pickets
6,000 rebs came out yelling and surprised the Union Army
Some troops died in the middle of making coffee
Others never made it out of their blankets
Union was on the verge of disaster
Then, Confederate General Albert Sydney Johnson died during the battle
accidentally shot by his own men
April 7, 1862
Grant reorganized and attacked
Forced Confederate into retreat
Both sides learned they needed better strategy
The battle looked like two armed mobs again
Needed scouts, trenches, fortifications
Shiloh revealed the horror of the war
North - 13,000 casualties
South - 11,000 casualties
Confederates could not hold onto the Kentucky-Ohio Frontier
The Union pressed toward the Mississippi River
Battles for New Orleans (April 25 - May 1, 1862
Part of the Anaconda Plan called for controlling the Mississippi River
New Orleans is a port on the mouth of the river
Admiral David Farragut (East Tennessee)
Attacked forts on the mouth of the river with the navy
"Damn the Torpedos, full speed ahead!"
Confederates fled, the Union captured New Orleans
The Union now controlled the mouth of the "Mighty Mississippi"

In the East
Abraham Lincoln changed leadership of the Union Army
General George B. McClellan
Great administrator, popular with soldiers
Mexican-American War veteran
Traveled to Europe to observe Crimean War
Good leader - trained troops
Training that would be valuable later
He had a bit of a Napoleon Complex
Overly Cautious
After 5 months of training with 120,000 troops - he stated that he could not attack Richmond unless he had 270,000 troops
Richmond was the capital of the Confederate Government
Newspapers mocked him
Finally, he advanced
New Technology
Minié Ball
Bullet made for rifles
Soft lead, destructive
Fragmented when it hit bone
Number 1 killer of the Civil War
besides disease
Iron sided ships
Could resist cannon fire and burning
Effectively ended the wooden ship era
Merrimack (C.S.S. Virginia) vs the U.S.S. Monitor
Two of the most famous Ironclads
Merrimack - South
A Northern vessel confiscated by the Southern Navy - renamed C.S.S. Virginia
U.S.S. Monitor - North
Fought each other at the beginning of the Peninsula Campaign (March 9, 1862)
Peninsula Campaign (March - July 1862)
Major Union operation to land South of Richmond by sea and march north
led by the overly cautious McClellan
Numerous small battles took place
McClellan got pretty close to Richmond
The Confederate General Josh Johnston was wounded
Robert E. Lee took command
Robert E. Lee
Graduated from U.S. Military Academy, West Point
Willing to go beyond textbooks for military tactics
Opposed secession
Declined an offer to lead the Union Army
sided with his state, Virginia
He attacked McClellan
Confederates had fewer soldiers and took higher casualties
BUT - it was unorthodox and it caused McClellan to second guess Confederate strength
McClellan retreated back to Washington

Jackson's Valley Campaign
During the Peninsula Campaign, Lee sought to prevent Union troops from reinforcing McClellan's Army
"Stonewall" Jackson was sent on the "Valley Campaign"
With the help of the Hotchkiss's Map, Jackson led larger Union forces on a chase through the Shenandoah Valley
Jackson dominated competition and won many battles
Battle of Antietam (September 1862)
Conf. Gen. Robert E. Lee marched forces north to Antietam Creek, Maryland
This would be the war's first major battle on northern soil
Antietam is the deadliest one (1) day battle in American History
over 26,000 casualties
neither side won a clear victory
Lee withdrew to the South
The Union might have been able to end the war by pursuing the Confederates
The Union outnumbered the Rebs two-to-one
McClellan did not follow

This bloody draw - or really Lee's failure to win - allowed the Union to claim victory

It encouraged Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863)
Lincoln used executive powers to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln did not expect slaveowners in the South to release their slaves
He hoped news would spread and slaves would run away
With slaves out of the picture - the Confederacy would have to use more white people for support (laborers, farming, factory workers, etc.) which would hurt the Southern war effort

Proclaimed all slaves in Confederate Territory free
Did not
compensate owners
did not
include slaves in border states or Union states
The proclamation applied to only 3.1 million of the roughly 4 million slaves
As Union armies advanced into the South, slaves would be free

The Emancipation Proclamation was a war measure
It also shifted the goal of the Union war effort from simply maintaining the Union - to ending slavery

Lastly, it opened the door for African-Americans who wanted to join the Union Army

Political Issues
Not all Northerner supported Lincoln or the war effort
Some were Confederate sympathizers just as some Southerners supported the Union
These Northerners are sometimes called "Copperheads" - Northern Democrats who opposed war
In some states, Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus
The legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge
It's so the government cannot throw you in jail and leave you there for any reason
The Constitution allows the President to suspend Habeas Corpus during a national emergency
Over 13,000 would be arrested in the North

Jefferson Davis denounced these actions as tyranny
Later he did the same thing as Lincoln
Long Term Impact?
Lincoln drastically increased the power of the Presidency to meet wartime needs (War Powers)
Future Presidents would cite war or "national security" as a reason to further expand this power
Lyndon Johnson - Tonkin Gulf Resolution
George W. Bush - Patriot Act
Barack Obama - NDAA
The Civil War: 1863 to 1865
Initially, both sides relied on volunteers for soldiers
Widespread desertion led to conscription
A military draft
1862 - the Confederacy passed the first Conscription Law
You could avoid conscription if your owned 20 or more slaves
90% of eligible southern men fought for the Confederacy largely due to these laws
1863 Union passed a draft
Draftees could hire substitutes
$300 fee to avoid being drafted - led to draft riots
Only 46,000 draftees went into the Union Army
92% of Union Forces used were volunteers

Definitely a "Rich man's war, and a poor man's fight"
New York City Draft Riots
Copperheads stirred things up
Primarily over the issue of Conscription
100 people ended up dead
Black people were targeted - they were seen as the cause of the war
Federal Troops (fresh from Gettysburg) re-established order
Irregular War
Forms of warfare that did not (Sometimes) involve the main army

Nathan Bedford Forrest
Fort Pillow
John Singleton Mosby - "The Gray Ghost"
William Quantrill
William T. Anderson
"Bloody Bill Anderson"
Women in the Civil War
Women could not fight in wars
This did not stop them from helping...or from fighting
Jack Williams
To his comrades, he was a hard-drinking, tobacco-chewing, foul-mouthed son of a gun.
fought in 18 battles, wounded 3 times, taken prisoner once
Turned out to be a mother of three from Illinois

Clara Barton
Appalled at what she saw on the battlefield
Medical staff, supplies, and organization were in short supply
Started relief operations
Used army ambulances
Her actions became the precursor for the American Red Cross in 1881
"Angel of the Battlefield"
Lincoln Changes Generals
For not following Lee after Antietam, Lincoln fired McClellan
Ambrose Burnside became the new commanding General
One major battle - Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec. 11-15, 1862)
Complete and utter disaster
Lee annihalated his men - "It is well that war is so terrible - otherwise we would grow too fond of it" ~ Robert E. Lee

Lincoln appointed a brash and daring General, Joe Hooker
Fighting Joe
Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1-4, 1863)
Robert E. Lee's "perfect battle" and profound tragedy
Lee sent Jackson on a brilliant and daring flanking maneuver
Took Hooker's men by complete surprise
Jackson - riding the front lines at night - was accidentally shot by his own men

Hooker withdrew a few days later

Jackson had his arm amputated
He was recovering
But - he caught pneumonia and died
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863)
Build Up:
Lee hoped that an invasion of the North would weaken Northern support for the war
He carried out this invasion without Jackson...
Lincoln fired General Hooker (Union) and replaced him with General George Meade (who never gets enough credit)
Lee's Army was met by Union troops at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
What ensued:
A three day battle

Notable Events:
Day 1
U.S. Brig. Gen. John Buford holds the line
U.S. Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds killed
Day 2
Little Round Top - 20th Maine
Day 3
Pickett's Charge
Deadliest Battle of the American Civil War
Approx. 50,000 casualties

Marked the beginning of the end for the Confederacy
Turning Point
The "High Water Mark"
Lee gave up on attempts to invade the North
Meade did not pursue Lee
Despite Lincoln's insistence

Four Months Later, Abraham Lincoln delivered the
Gettysburg Address
Day 1 - July 1, 1863
Day 2 - July 2, 1863
Day 3 - July 3, 1863
The Gettysburg Address
The dedication of a military cemetery at the Gettysburg Battlefield
Took place in November 1863, four months after the Union and Confederate armies sustained 50,000 there

Edward Everett was slated to give the "Gettysburg Address"
He spoke for two hours
His remarks were well received - but hardly anyone remembers them

Abraham Lincoln rose and gave a small dedication
It lasted roughly 2 minutes
The crowd response was poor, mainly because they were used to lengthy speeches - a lot of the crowd couldn't hear it - it was about the spectacle

The next day, Northern newspapers had published the speech.
In 10 sentences, Lincoln summarized the war in his own mind.
He spoke on his desire to preserve the Union
He called to continue the war, to fight for the fallen

The speech caught the imagination of the Northern people

It inspired the North and raised their spirits

The speech still inspires us today - it is probably the most well known speech in American History

War in the West: Vicksburg
Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Vicksburg, Mississippi) May - July 1863
"Gettysburg of the West"
It was a high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River
Control Vicksburg = control traffic on the Mississippi River
After seven (7) weeks, aided by the navy on the Mississippi River, Gen. John Pemberton surrendered to Grant

Union gained control of the Mississippi River
Confederacy was cut into two
Soldiers and supplies from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas could not move East
This victory, coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, proved to be a turning point of the War
Still in the West
Battle of Chickamauga (September 1863)
Gen. Rosecrans (USA) lost to Gen. Braxton Bragg (CSA) in a bloody battle near the Chickamauga Creek (Northwest Georgia)
Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, TN - Braxton Bragg laid siege on Chattanooga
In October 1863, Grant is promoted to Major General of the Division of the Mississippi
Included the Armies of the Ohio, Tennessee, and Cumberland (Union Armies named their armies after bodies of water, or in this case, rivers)
Grant arrived in Chattanooga via horseback and reversed the situation there
In Chattanooga
Grant devised a new system to supply the city and break the siege
Grant attacks
Grant replaced Rosecrans with General George Thomas "The Rock of Chickamauga"
Lincoln reinforced Grant sending two divisions from the Army of the Potomac under command of Joseph Hooker to assist Grant
On November 25, 1863, Grant's armies attack
Hooker took Lookout Mountain
Sherman attacked Missionary Ridge and failed
The Army of the Cumberland charged up hill and crushed Braxton Bragg's center, which forced the rebels into a disorganized retreat
The Union now had Chattanooga - the gateway to Georgia and the deep South
Lieutenant General Grant
On March 3, 1864 Lincoln promoted Grant to Lieutenant General - commander of all Union Armies
Only under the supervision of the President
Grant assigned Major General William Tecumseh Sherman the Military Division of the Mississippi

Grant traveled to Washington, D.C. to meet with Lincoln and devise a strategy of "Total War" to use on the Confederacy
Five Simultaneous Attacks
Meade will attack Lee with the Army of the Potomac
Grant would be in camp - overseeing the operation
An Army commanded by Gen. Benjamin Butler would advance on Richmond, VA.
Franz Sigel would push through the Shenandoah Valley and attack east from the Blue Ridge Mountains
General Sherman will attack the Conf. Army of Tennessee newly under command of Gen. Joseph Johnston
Another army would wage war in Alabama then to Georgia

Grant used the North's industrial power and manpower
He decided a war of attrition against Lee - which prevent reinforcements from moving due to the five simultaneous attacks - would force the Confederacy into surrender.
The Atlanta Campaign (May - September, 1864)
William Tecumseh Sherman vs General Joseph Johnston
Johnston fought a defensive war and retreated further toward Atlanta
It was a rather brilliant game of chess
Johnston frustrated Sherman into attacks him at Kennesaw Mountain and Pickett's Mill
Johnston achieved victory
However, Jefferson Davis was tired of the retreating
He wanted a General to seize the initiative and attack
Johnston was fired - replaced with John Bell Hood

John Bell Hood
A daring and brave division commander - attacked the Devil's Den at Gettysburg
But a horrible commander of large armies
Gave Sherman a stand up fight - paid for it horribly

Sherman laid siege on Atlanta
lasted for six weeks
Sherman captured the city which cut off an important center of manufacturing and railway traffic
Sherman's victory helped Lincoln secure re-election in 1864
March to the Sea
"I intended to make Georgia howl." - Sherman

Grant believed the war could only come to an end if the South's economic, strategic, and psychological capacity for war was broken
Sherman's plan to march across Georgia sought to do just that

Sherman's men burned all war making/industrial buildings in Atlanta and then marched toward Savannah
On the way, Sherman intended to destroy industrial infrastructure
However, he did not use a supply wagon
His men were ordered to "forage liberally"
He knew this would have a destructive effect on the morale of the southern population
On Christmas Eve, 1864
Sherman wired Lincoln a message
"Mr. Lincoln, I give you the city of Savannah. Merry Christmas"

Once Winter ended, Sherman marched North toward Grant
"40 Acres and A Mule"
In Savannah, Sherman issued "Special Field Orders, No. 15"
January 16, 1865
It provided land and mules from the army for former slaves
thousands of slaves followed Sherman on the March - he could not take care of them during the march
this plan was to address the immediate problem now that the march was over
Never meant to be a long term solution
Siege at Petersburg (June 9, 1864 to March 25, 1865
In the East, Grant and Meade pressed The Army of the Potomac against Lee fighting in the "Overland Campaign" which was inconclusive and led to a massive loss in life
Grant lost 55,000
Lee lost 36,000
Unlike his predecessors, Grant never fell back after a loss to Lee - Grant kept pressing forcing Lee on the defensive and driving toward Richmond
Grant could replace his losses, Lee could not.
Northern papers referred to Grant as "The Butcher"
Grant decided to bypass Richmond and attack the railroad junction at Petersburg
Petersburg was a railroad was a supply center for Richmond and was the main supply base and rail center for the region.
Grant knew that Lee could not defend Richmond if Petersburg fell
Confederate forces in Petersburg fortified as the Union Army arrived

It was not really a siege - in reality, it was 9 months of Trench Warfare

The Crater (July 30, 1864)
The End of the War
On April 2, 1865 Lee pulled his forces out of Richmond
Confederate leaders fled
April 3, Grant took Richmond

Lee marched his army West - hoping to find supplies
Intended to get to North Carolina and link up with Joseph Johnston, in charge of what was left of the Army of Tennessee
Grant pursued relentlessly - ultimately cut off Lee's escape route

Lee's men were starving, short on supplies, ragged and beaten
Lee around 25,000 men
Grant had over 100,000 (60,000 pressing Lee)

On April 9, 1865, in the early afternoon, Lee donned his fines uniform - he put on his General stars for the first time of the war - and he surrendered to Grant
Grant's terms to Lee:
Rebs could keep horses and mules
Rebs had to surrender their weapons
Rebs had to declare loyalty to the Union
Depart in peace

Legacies of the War
Role of Women
Welfare services
Clara Barton - North - Angel of the Battlefield
Sally Thompkins - South - Helped wounded Confederates
Role of African-Americans
185,000 Black Men fought for the Union Army
54th Massachusetts
Nearly annihilated at Fort Wagner
Portrayed in the Movie
First Modern War
Used Railroads, submarines (H.L. Hunley), and Telegraphs for communication
Steel Ships - Fought all day and took little damage
Merimack and Monitor
The method of war
Total War - War of Annihilation - The Grant Strategy - to overwhelm opponents with industry and manpower while attacking their ability to wage war
It became the "American Way of War" for over a century
Henry Wirz - P.O.W. Commander for the South at Andersonville Prison Camp (Georgia)
Only person tried and executed for war crimes
His trial resembled a mob
Aftermath of the War
Estimated that 625,000 to 850,000 died
The War cost around $20 billion

Proved a Republic could endure/survive even through the harshest of times

Two Lingering Questions (Among many)
How does the U.S. bring Southern States, who rebelled, back into the Union
What about the roughly 4 million former slaves

Before those questions could be addressed, the war would claim one more life
The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
John Wilkes Booth
Young actor
Planned a well thought out assassination
was originally supposed to be a kidnapping

Lincoln and his wife went to Ford's Theater to see a play
"Our American Cousin" - a comedy
Booth snuck into the President's box
During a rather humorous line that generated a lot of laughter Booth shot Lincoln in the back of the head
The American Civil War
Full transcript