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Connie Scott

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of EDCI 513 ADDIE

Learning Design & Technology
Darlene Ferri-Kurjack
Mark Martin
Connie Scott

Bonus Facts
& here's
my model
Seven Common Weaknesses of the ADDIE Process:
1.) Typical processes require unrealistically comprehensive up-front analysis Most teams respond by doing very little at all and fail to access critical elements
2.) Ignores some political realities. Opportunities are misses, vital resources aren't made available, support is lacking, and targets shift.
3.) Storyboards are ineffective tools for creating, communicating and evaluating design alternatives. Poor designs aren't recognized as such until too late.
4.) Detailed processes become so set that creativity becomes a nuisance.
5.) No accommodation for dealing with faults or good ideas throughput the process.
6.) Learning programs are designed to meet criteria that are measured (schedule, cost, throughput) and fail to focus on identifying behavioral changes.
7.) Post-tests provide little useful information to assist in improving instruction


Jonassen, D. H. (2008). Instructional design as design problem solving: An iterative process. Educational Technology, 48(3), 21-26
"Constraints are rarely ever, identified completely at the beginning of the design process, as implied by the ADDIE model"
(p. 26).

"Most of the current instructional design models you will find in the workplace today are variations or spin-offs of the original ADDIE model.

One commonly accepted improvement to the ADDIE model that almost everyone uses whether consciously or unconsciously, is the use of what is often referred to as rapid prototyping which attempts to catch design flaws while they are still easy to fix."
When the ADDIE model first appeared in 1975, it was strictly a linear or waterfall model.
By 1984 the model, lead by the U.S. Armed Forces evolved into a more dynamic nature for the other phases of the model.
For example, one U.S. Army (1984) training manual reads,
“As the model shows, all parts are interrelated. Changes, which occur during one step of the model, affect other steps. In the ISD process, nothing is done in isolation, nor is all done in a linear fashion; activities of various phases may be accomplished concurrently.”
Merriënboer wrote in 1997 (p3): The phases may be listed in a linear order, but in fact are highly interrelated and typically not performed in a linear but in an iterative and cyclic fashion.
In addition to evolving to a more dynamic structure, the last phase was changed from “Evaluation & Control” to simply “Evaluation” (Hannum, 2005). Thus, the model becomes ADDIE and not ADDIEC.
ADDIE was never meant to determine if training is the correct answer to a problem. Thus the first step when presented with a performance problem is to use a performance analysis tool (Branson, Rayner, Cox, Furman, Hannum, 1975).

When was ADDIE developed?
The processes of the ADDIE system were established during the development of an Instructional Systems Design Model entitled
"Interservice Procedures for Instructional Systems Development (IPISD)" ,
developed for U.S. Armed Forces.

Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42(5), 34-37.
Widely used and accepted
Forms a road map for the entire project (Harmon)
Each component governed by learner outcomes (McGriff, 2000)
Does not impose a strict linear progression between each step (Forest, 2014)
Flexible guideline for (McGriff 2000)
Analysis\learner expectations & outcomes align closely with current Human Performance Improvement concepts
Iterative process - each phase may lead the ID back to any previous phase
Each phase has "stand-alone" value for model modifications
Can be used as a foundation, a starting place to build your own "model" of sorts (Ferriman, 2013)

"A model offers its user a means of comprehending an otherwise incomprehensible problem. The value of a specific [emphasis added] model is determined within the context of use. Like any other instrument, a model assumes a specific intention of its user. A model should be judged by how it mediates the designer's intention, how well it can share a work load, and how effectively it shifts focus away from itself toward the object of the design activity." -Martin Ryder, University of Colorado. (Ryder, 2014)

The ADDIE Model is the ‘go-to’ model. The ADDIE model can be a very good instructional design for a uncomplicated task. It is the core of other more inclusive system designs.

Descriptors of ADDIE
system design
generic process
core of instructional design
dynamic, flexible guideline
learner centered
Specifically, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation

Ryder, M. (2014, 9 16). Instructional Design Central. Retrieved 9 16, 2014, from Instructional Design Model: http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDC_instructionaldesignmodels.htm
Who developed ADDIE ?
Additional References:

ADDIE infographic - created by @nicole_legault. May be reproduced with acknowledged credit. Retrieved from http://www.learndash.com/addie-model-explained-infographic/

ADDIE youtube videos - jclarkgardner.com (2011)

Flowchart retrieved from http://intulogy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/ADDIE-Flowchart-by-Intulogy.pdf

Wayne and Geraldi Twin Pianos (n.d.) - Educational, in-class purposes only. Not to be reproduced.
You will find the Ant to be independent in its job duties, yet dependent on others for the success of the mission as a whole. The Ant likes to focus on the task at hand, likes an organized structure, and a simple, proven system. They like to be known as the originator of all good design, but willingly share their successes with others.

Other interesting Zodiac Facts:

Ants are ubiquitous, as is ADDIE to instructional design.

Like the model ADDIE, the Ant has been around forever, but it’s exact origin is uncertain.

Ants have a queen , or multiple queens - ADDIE has a designer or project manager.

Ants have soldiers and workers- ADDIE can have IT , Media, Graphics, SME's , Authoring , Coding, Scripting, Narration

Ants have various forms of communication-- pheromones, sound and touch - ADDIE can be used for the design of various methods of media presentation such as Static, Audio or Video

Similar to the development stages of an ant --egg, larva, pupae, adult--there are development stages to the ADDIE Model--Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate.
No one really knows!
Instructional Design
ADDIE is viewed as a colloquial or umbrella term.
"The model seems not to have a single author, but rather to have evolved informally through oral tradition"
(Molenda, 2003).

Similarities exist with previous ID models such as Florida State University Center for Educational Technology's work with the US Army - IPISD (1975), and The Five Steps model developed for the US Air Force (1965)......but no one actually used the ADDIE acronym.
Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Performance improvement, 42(5), 34-37.
Clark, D. (2004). The Air Force's five step approach-1965. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/history_isd/airforce.html
Sample Tasks & Outcomes
Some designers complain ADDIE lacks
an adequate trial evaluation stage or "dry run test" for evaluating element effectiveness.
McGriff, S. (Sep 2009).
Instructional system design (ISD): using the ADDIE model
. Instructional Systems, College of Education, Penn State University
Forest, E. (Jan 2014) The Addie Model Instructional Design. Retrieved from http://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design
Ferriman, J. (Aug 2013). Addie Model Explained [Infographic]. Retrieved from http://www.learndash.com/addie-model-explained-infographic/
Harmon, L. (2013). Intulogy. Retrieved from http://intulogy.com/addie/
Hit the mute button on the file bar to pause
the music during
the videos.
Hit the mute button
again to crank that
lovely little ditty back up.
Please use the arrows to click through my show.
Full transcript