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Transcript of Japan
Anthony Shima Japan History Prehistoric Japan Nara Period (710-794) History dates back as far as 14,000 B.C.
Divided into 11 periods
Kofun Period (300 - 700 AD)
Nara Period (710 - 794)
Heian Period (794 - 1185)
Kamakura Period (1185 - 1333)
Muromachi Period (1333 - 1568)
Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568-1600)
Edo Period (1600-1868)
Meiji Period (1868-1912)
Taisho Period (1912-1926)
Showa Period (1926-1989)
Heisei Period (1989 to present) During the Jomon period, which began around 14,000 BC, the inhabitants of Japan lived by fishing, hunting, and gathering.
An account of Japan in a Chinese historical document of the third century AD describes a queen named Himiko ruling over a country called Yamatai. A centralized government, with its capital in what is now the city of Nara, was established under a Chinese-style system of law codes known as the Ritsuryo system.
Buddhism became the national religion, and Buddhist art and architecture flourished. Provincial temples called kokubunji were set up throughout Japan. Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1. Believes in a delicate balance between the environment and people that is strictly maintained.
2. Focus on the future and the implications of their actions rather than the past or the present.
3. People are generally regarded as trustworthy individuals.
4.They stay focused on accomplishments rather than living a spiritual or carefree lifestyle.
5. Emphasizes individual responsibility to the group and group responsibility to the individual. Hofstede’s 5 Value Dimensions Power Distance: 54, fairly distance culture in terms of status differential.
Collectivism vs. Individualism: 46, semi weak belief in being individualistic
Femininity vs. Masculinity: Japan is a Masculine society 95 in this category, which is mainly represented by there business culture and not so much there family culture.
Uncertainty avoidance: Japans culture is extremely structured giving them the high number of 92 in this category. They have a high anxiety when it comes to the unknown and try to avoid this by over structuring and having very formal descriptive rules and regulations
Long vs. Short-term Orientation: Japan has a score of 80; this means that they are long term oriented. Hall’s High Context/Low Context World Values Survey World Values Survey Map Gannon’s Cultural Metaphor Japanese garden: Kata-based undifferentiated family system
Kata just simply means detailed pattern, this portrays into their business life, as they are a very over structured culture.
A Japanese garden is very neat, presentable, well thought out and organized. All of these traists can be used to describe The ideal bussinesss environment for Japan. Meiji Period (1868-1912) The Meiji Restoration, by which political authority was restored from the shogunate to the imperial court, ushered in a period of far-reaching reform.
The policy of national seclusion was rescinded, and the culture and civilization of the West began to pervade every aspect of Japanese life.
Japan's victories in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars enabled it to assume the stance of a modern, imperialistic world power. Showa Period (1926-1989) The financial crisis of 1927, which occurred in the aftermath of the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 that devastated the Tokyo area, eventually led to a long period of economic depression.
In these circumstances, the power of the military increased, and it eventually gained control of the government.
The Manchurian Incident of 1931 launched a series of events that culminated in Japan's entry into World War II.
This war ended in Japan's defeat, with Emperor Showa accepting the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. Japan rose from the rubble of defeat, going on to achieve an almost miraculous economic recovery, which has allowed it to take its place among the world's leading democratic powers. Heisei Period (1989 to present) Nonverbal Communication
(Kinesics, Proxemics, Chronemics) Geography Kinesics- The study of nonverbal communication used by either the face or body parts. It is said that only about 7- 35% of our language is spoken the rest is inferred though hand gestures, facial expressions, and body movements. Japanese have a fairly low level of kinesics Nonverbal Communication Cont'd Proxemics- This is the study of space in relation to communicatio. A study done showed that on average Japanese people stand about 15 centimeters farther away than Americans when communicating.
There Head and toe distance is almost identical
This is due to the fact that Americans greet each other with handshakes or hugs, while Japanese use a bow to greet each other. Located off the East coast of Asia
Archipelago nation comprised of four main islands, from North to South:
Honshu (the largest and most populous)
Shikoku, and over 3500 smaller islands. Nonverbal Communication Cont'd Chronemics- Japanese culture is mainly Monochronic, this means they usually do one things at a time. They have a rigid approach to time as well as focus on the task at hand and have a strict agenda. The completion of the job is most important to them and they have an emphasis on promptness. Trompenaars’ 6 Dimensions of Culture •Individualism vs. Communitarianism- Japan is a Communitarianism culture, simply put this means that they put more emphasis on the good of their society and being part of the group then they do on individual achievement.
•Specific Relationship vs. Diffuse relationship- Japan is a diffuse relationship type of culture, meaning both public and private spaces are of a similar size.
•Universalism vs. Particularism - Japanese culture leans towards the Particularism beliefs in culture. This means that circumstances usually dictate how ideas and practices should be applied. They focus on relationships and on working things out to suit their parties.
•Achievement vs. Ascription - Japan is an Ascription type of society and culture. Ascriptions cultures have a status that is attributed based on who or what a person is also on the basis of age, gender, or your ancestry. Ting-Toomey’s 4 verbal communication styles •Direct vs. Indirect Style - The way of expressing a speaker’s true intention (needs and wants).
Japan is a member of the indirect style of communicating
Speakers of indirect style use imprecise words to communicate their message, by doing this they force the listener to infer about what they are talking about. Ting-Toomey’s 4 verbal communication styles Ting-Toomey’s 4 verbal communication styles •Personal vs. Contextual Style: In Japan, age and titles are very important. Your status determines the type of language and grammar that you use.
Japan has an honorific language. It not only has a difference in vocabulary, but grammar as well. When you are talking to a Japanese person of a higher status and you fail to comply with the difference in vocabulary and grammar it is considered an offense. •Instrumental vs. Affective Style - Affective style is used in high context cultures and is a process-oriented verbal exchange that uses a receiver-oriented language. To where in the western civilizations we will argue or debate our point until the other side agrees with us no matter how often we notice they disagree. The affective style is much different and after they have explained their point and described their idea if the listener does not agree they simply stop. Ting-Toomey’s 4 verbal communication styles Climate While the southern area (Kyushu to the Ryukyu Islands) of the country has a subtropical climate.
warm winters, hot summers and heavy precipitation. The northernmost part of Japan (Hokkaido) has a humid sub continental climate.
winders are long and very cold, while the summers are warm or cool. Geography Cont. The Japanese people define their country as a “small, resource-poor island country.”
Some are volcanic (i.e. Mount Fuji, last erupted in 1707)
Narrow valleys between tree-covered low mountains, (either natural or reforested), with strips of agriculture and human habitation along the valley edges. Education Japan has a very effective education system, which yields a 99% literacy rate.
90.8% of the parents send their children to a "juku" or cram school
98% of graduate middle school to attend high schools or private specialist institutions
44.8% graduate to attend universities
High School and University entrance exam Birth Rate/Death 8.39 births per 1000
9.15 deaths per 1000
By 2050, Japan’s government predicts 40 percent of its population will be over the age of 65. Political System Democratic Monarchy
Prime Minister is in charge
Royal family is just for show
Supreme Court where the judicial power lies
Constitution of Japan (1946)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Shinzo Abe Royal Family Industry and Products Imports
machinery and equipment
raw materials Exports
electronic goods Technology Industry Ranked 2nd in spending next to U.S.
80% funded by the industry Living Conditions Clean living
40 houses in one acre Regional Trade Agreements Current Agreements
Thailand Future Agreements
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC
Republic of Korea Working Conditions International Labor Organization's conventions
Japanese labor law provides for a 40-hour workweek
Children under the age of 15 may not work
Minimum wages range between $46 and $53 per day Holidays/Festivals Negotiation and Conflict Styles/Tips Women's Rights Second class status until the 1860s
Discrimination and stereotypes
14 weeks of maternity leave How US culture is viewed Interview with member of culture We have interviewed some of the exchange students from Kansai Gaidai University in Osaka. We asked them if they enjoy their life at USF and in Florida and at first they politely smiled and said yes. The answer seemed forced so later on in the interview we have asked them again. This time they told us the life in Florida and USF is okay but there are some difficulties. This is where culture shock and culture difference come in play. They told us the major difference between Japan and the U.S. is the public transit systems. They told us in Japan it was very easy to travel from “Point A” to “Point B”. They told us they tried the bus but it only took them so far. They explained to us that it was hard to go anywhere without asking their friends and their friends have told them they never used the public transit systems here in Florida. Common Holidays
New Year/ New Year's Eve
Christmas Japanese Holidays
Coming of Age
Beginning of Spring (Setsubun)
Hina Matsuri (Doll Festival)
Labor Thanksgiving Day They also told us the food portion is very different. In the U.S., we overeat and over serve food. Many kids in Japan are told to finish all their food by their parents and to treat a grain of rice like it is a gift. The portions there are a lot smaller than the U.S. portion. Collection/Interpretation of Proverbs from country • (Nokorimono ni wa fuku ga aru) Literally: Luck exists in the leftovers.
Meaning: There is luck in the last helping.
• (Koketsu ni irazunba koji wo ezu) Literally: If you do not enter the tiger's cave, you will not catch its cub.
Meaning: Nothing ventured, nothing gained. / You can't do anything without risking something.
• (Jigou Jitoku) Literally: One's Act, One's profit/Advantage.
Meaning: That's what you get, Just desserts, You reap what you sow.
• (Saru mo ki kara ochiru) Literally: Even monkeys fall from trees.
Meaning: Everyone makes mistakes. / Nobody's perfect.
• (Ni usagi wo ou mono wa ichi usagi wo mo ezu) Literally: One who chases after two hares won't catch even one.
Meaning: Trying to do two things at once will make you fail in both.
• (Shiranu ga hotoke) Literally: Not knowing is Buddha.
Meaning: Ignorance is bliss. / It's better to not know the truth.
• (daidō shōi) Literally: big similarity, small difference
Meaning: Similarities outweigh the differences.
• (isseki nichō) Literally: one stone, two birds
Meaning: Killing two birds with one stone; Doing 2 things with one action.
• (unsan mushō) Literally: scattered clouds, disappearing mist
Meaning: Disappear without a trace.
• (ichigo ichie) Literally: One period, one meeting Meaning: for this time only; one chance; once in a lifetime Greetings, Emotions, Face, Gift Giving, Titles Greetings- a handshake is appropriate upon meeting. The Japanese handshake is limp with little or no eye contact. Some Japanese bow and shake hands. The bow is a highly regarded greeting and the deeper the bow the more respect it shows.
Gift Giving- The act of giving a gift is much more important than the value of the gift. Allow your Japanese counterpart to initiate the gift giving or present a gift in modest fashion saying, "This is just a small token". You give a gift and receive a gift with both hands and a slight bow also be prepared for the Japanese to refuse a gift once or twice before accepting it this is common.
"chan" which is most often used for female close friends, young girls or infants of either gender.
"kun" most often used for close friends that are males or young boys.
"san" which is used for adults in general.
"sama" which is used for a customer that you are serving or for a religious god
"sensei" which is probably the most common one known to americans can mean either doctor or professor. Emotions- Just a simple list of emotions that translate directly or fairly well into Japanese.
1. Happy- Ureshii: ;
2. Elated- Kozen:
3. Angry- Ikaru: or ;
4. Worried- Nayamu: ;
5. Scared- Ojiru: ;
6. Terrified- Kyouzen: ;
7. Relieved- Sutto: ;
8. Bored- Tsumaranasou: ;
9. Silly- Tawainai: ;
10. Shocked- Akireru: ;
11. Annoyed- Urusagaru: ;
12. Rushed- Soso: ;
13. Excited- Gekko: ;
14. Sad- Kanashi: ;
15. Lonely- Sabishi: ;
16. Lazy- Tsutsushimanai:
17. Shy- Hazukashi: ;
18. Bashful- Shuchi: ;
19. Eager- Setsutunaru: ;
20. Calm- Nagoyaku: ;
21. Relaxed- Arakajime:
22. Anxious- Anjiru: ;
23. Condescending- Onkisegamashi: ;
24. Cautious- Sononai: ;
25. Confused- Magomago: ; Emotions •Internal vs. External control - Japan is an internal control type of culture.
They are very in touch with their environment but they like to control
it rather then it controls them. •Sequential vs. Synchrinic - Japanese culture tends to be Sequential, meaning that they do things one at a time or in order. They like to stick to the task at hand and make sure that they complete it before they move on to the next task. Languages Japanese is the official language of Japan.
Japanese is believed to be linked to the Altaic Language family which includes Turkish, Mongolian and other languages.
It also shows similarities to languages such as Polynesian which is a decent of the Austronesian languages.
The language is unique because there are different words and expressions that are used when talking to people of different context.
For example there are five different words for the English word "I" which are all used at different times depending on if you are talking to a superior, stranger, friend, or child etc.
Honorific Language known as "Keigo" that is still in common use today. 36.5-49.28 F Religion 71.96-80 F - One of the most secular-rational societies in the world
- 65% claim to be non-religious
- Yet 75% have some type of Buddhist or Shinto altar in their home
- Can be attributed to a difference in the meaning and value of the word "religion."
- Japan ranks in the middle in Survival vs. Self expression
- Individualism is not important Shinto and Buddhism are the two major religions in Japan. Shinto is as old as Japanese culture dates back, but Buddhism on the other hand was brought over from the mainland in the 6th century.
Most Japanese consider themselves a Shintoist or a Buddhist or sometimes even both.
The average Japanese person will follow in the typical ceremonies like birth, weddings or funerals, and they may visit a shrine or temple on New Year. - Hall says, a high context culture favors a well developed, informal information network.
- Japan is a perfect example of a high context society
- Less words are needed to establish a point in conversation. Meanings are often implied
- Work place is messy and informal, but very effective within the context of their own culture. 6. Public culture, mainly when it
comes to their working environment - Respect American Culture
- Agree with American political sytem
- 64% agree with democratic system
- 7 point increase from 2007
-69% enjoy American pop culture (music, television, movies)
- Younger Japanese generation embraces American culture more so than their elder counterparts. Negotiation - mutual discussion and arrangement of the terms of a transaction or agreement.
Japanese negotiation style
- Emphasis on consensus
- Equal representation from each firm
- Learn about other firms before negotiations
- Do not agree with restrictive contracts
- Leave room for honorable breakout
- Prefer long term relationships