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US History - 13.1 - Cultures Clash on the Prairie - 13.2 - Settling the Great Plains

USH 13.1
by

McDaris

on 3 October 2013

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Transcript of US History - 13.1 - Cultures Clash on the Prairie - 13.2 - Settling the Great Plains

Chapter 13 Objectives
To analyze the settlement of the Great Plains during the late 1800s and to examine Native American policies, private property rights, and the Populist movement.


SECTION 1 Cultures Clash on the Prairie

Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.
Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.
Identify the government's policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.
One American's Story
Zitkala-Sa
Chapter 13 Section 1
Native American Culture in Crisis

The Culture of the Plains Indians
Life on the Plains
Great Plains—grasslands in west-central portion of the U.S.
East: hunting, farming villages; west: nomadic hunting, gathering

The Horse and the Buffalo
Horses, guns lead most Plains tribes to nomadic life by mid-1700s
Trespassing others’ hunting lands causes war; count coup for status
Buffalo provides many basic needs:
- hides used for teepees, clothes, blankets
- meat used for jerky, pemmican
Family Life
Family Life
Form family groups with ties to other bands that speak same language
Men are hunters, warriors; women butcher meat, prepare hides
Believe in powerful spirits that control natural world
- men or women can become shamans
Children learn through myths, stories, games, example
Communal life; leaders rule by counsel

Sioux Encampment 1891
Settlers Push Westward
Clash of Cultures
Native Americans: land cannot be owned; settlers: want to own land
Settlers think natives forfeited land because did not improve it
Since consider land unsettled, migrants go west to claim it

Samuel American Horse and wife, Sioux Indians
The Lure of Silver and Gold
1858 discovery of gold in Colorado draws tens of thousands
Mining camps, tiny frontier towns have filthy, ramshackle dwellings
Fortune seekers of different cultures, races; mostly men

Railroads Influence Government Policy
1834, government designates Great Plains as one huge reservation
1850s, treaties define specific boundaries for each tribe

Massacre at Sand Creek
Troops kill over 150 Cheyenne, Arapaho at Sand Creek winter camp

Death on the Bozeman Trail
Bozeman Trail crosses Sioux hunting grounds
- Red Cloud asks for end of settlements; Crazy Horse ambushes troops
Treaty of Fort Laramie—U.S. closes trail; Sioux to reservation
Sitting Bull, leader of Hunkpapa Sioux, does not sign treaty

Bloody Battles Continue
Red River War
1868, Kiowa, Comanche engage in 6 years of raiding
1874–1875, U. S. Army crushes resistance on Plains in Red River War

Gold Rush
1874 George A. Custer reports much gold in Black Hills, rush begins

Custer’s Last Stand
1876, Sitting Bull has vision of war at sun dance
Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Gall crush Custer’s troop
By late 1876, Sioux are defeated; some take refuge in Canada
- people starving; Sitting Bull surrenders 1881
The Dawes Act
1881, Helen Hunt Jackson exposes problems in A Century of Dishonor
Assimilation—natives to give up way of life, join white culture
1887, Dawes Act to “Americanize” natives, break up reservations
- gives land to individual Native Americans
- sell remainder of land to settlers
- money for farm implements for natives
In the end, Natives Americans receive only 1/3 of land, no money

The Destruction of the Buffalo
Destruction of buffalo most significant blow to tribal life
Tourists, fur traders shoot for sport, destroy buffalo population

Wounded Knee
Ghost Dance—ritual to regain lost lands
- spreads among Sioux on Dakota reservation
Dec. 1890, Sitting Bull is killed when police try to arrest him
Seventh Cavalry takes about 350 Sioux to Wounded Knee Creek
Battle of Wounded Knee—cavalry kill 300 unarmed Native Americans
Battle ends Indian wars, Sioux dream of regaining old life

Vaqueros and Cowboys
American settlers learn to manage large herds from Mexican vaqueros
- adopt way of life, clothing, vocabulary
Texas longhorns—sturdy, short-tempered breeds brought by Spanish
Cowboys not in demand until railroads reach Great Plains

Growing Demand for Beef
• After Civil War demand for meat increases in rapidly growing cities
The Cow Town
Cattlemen establish shipping yards where trails and rail lines meet
Chisholm Trail becomes major cattle route from San Antonio to Kansas
A Day’s Work
1866–1885, up to 55,000 cowboys on plains
- 25% African American, 12% Mexican
Cowboy works 10–14 hours on ranch; 14 or more on trail
Expert rider, roper; alert for dangers that may harm, upset cattle
Roundup
During spring roundup, longhorns found, herded into corral
Separate cattle marked with own ranch’s brand; brand calves
The Long Drive
Herding of animals or long drive lasts about
3 months
Cowboy in saddle dawn to dusk; sleeps on ground; bathes in rivers
Legends of the West
Celebrities like “Wild Bill” Hickok, Calamity Jane never handled cows
Changes in Ranching
Overgrazing, bad weather from 1883 to 1887 destroy whole herds
Ranchers keep smaller herds that yield more meat per animal
Fence land with barbed wire; turn open range into separate ranches
Section 2 - Settling on the Great Plains
Government Support for Settlement
1862 Homestead Act offers 160 acres free to any head of household
- 1862–1900, up to 600,000 families settle
Exodusters—Southern African-American settlers in Kansas
Railroad, state agents, speculators profit; 10% of land to families
Government strengthens act, passes new legislation for settlers

The Closing of the Frontier
1872, Yellowstone National Park created to protect some wilderness
1890s, no frontier left; some regret loss of unique American feature
Railroads Open the West
1850–1871, huge land grants to railroads for laying track in West
1860s, Central Pacific goes east, Union Pacific west, meet in Utah
By 1880s, 5 transcontinental railroads completed
Railroads sell land to farmers, attract many European immigrants

Dugouts and Soddies
Few trees, so many settlers dig homes into sides of ravines or hills
In plains, make soddy or sod home by stacking blocks of turf

Women’s Work
Homesteaders virtually alone, must be self-sufficient
Women do men’s work—plowing, harvesting, shearing sheep
Do traditional work—carding wool, making soap, canning vegetables
Work for communities—sponsor schools, churches

Technical Support for Farmers
Mass market for farm machines develops with migration to plains
Agricultural Education
Morrill Act of 1862, 1890 finances agricultural colleges
1887 Hatch Act creates agricultural experiment stations
Farmers in Debt
Railroads, investors create bonanza farms— huge, single-crop spreads
1885–1890 droughts bankrupt single-crop operations
Rising cost of shipping grain pushes farmers into debt

By 1934 about 2/3 of the land had been taken by whites with speculators gaining the most; Native Americans were left with the least valuable land
Children of Native Americans were sometimes sent to schools with the intention of "killing the Indian and saving the man"
a generation of Native Americans were taught to renounce their heritage and culture
Buffalo herds were targeted for destruction:
at least 15 million buffalo roamed the west in the early 19th century
by 1886 fewer than 600 remained
most were killed for sport, entertainment, or by deliberate action to destroy Native American culture
The Battle of Wounded Knee
The Sioux, in desperation, turned to the "Ghost Dance," a mystical experience that some hoped would remove the whites from their lands and restore their way of life
This alarmed the military authorities responsible for monitoring the Sioux and to stop it a group of Indian policemen were sent to arrest Sitting Bull; he was shot and killed as a consequence in early December 1890
Other Sioux were rounded up and the Seventh Calvary, Custer's old unit, slaughtered 300 unarmed freezing and starving people, including women and children, at Wounded Knee, leaving the corpses to freeze on the ground; bringing the Indian Wars to a conclusion
LEARN ABOUT
TO UNDERSTAND
the Native Americans' and settlers' ways of life
the conflicts that occurred during settlement of the Western frontier.
Full transcript