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Transcript of Teaching Reading
- ability to manipulate the smallest units of sound
2. Phonics Instruction
- helps children understand the relationship between letters and their sounds
3. Reading Fluency
- Ability of the reader to read text accurately, with expression, and at a speed that facilitates understanding.
4. Vocabulary Instruction
- Unless students understand the words they read, they can't comprehend text
- Understanding what was read
5 Essential Components
6 Phonics Instruction Approaches
1. Analogy-Based Phonics
2. Analytic Phonics
3. Embedded Phonics
4. Phonics Through Spelling
5. Onset-Rime Phonics Instruction
6. Synthetic Phonics
5 Recommendations to Enhance the Effectiveness of Phonological Awareness Instruction
1. Focus first on the auditory features of words.
2. Move from explicit, natural segments of language to the more implicit and complex.
3. Use phonological properties and dimensions of words to enhance performance.
4. Scaffold blending and segmenting through explicit modeling.
5. Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners are proficient with auditory tasks.
Chapter 8 EDSE 651
By Wendy & Marta
Fluency & Stages of Reading Development
1. Prereading (Emergent Literacy)-Kindergarten
2. Decoding- Grades 1-2
3. Confirmation and Fluency-Grade 3
4. Reading to Learn-Grades 4-8
5. Reading for Multiple Viewpoints-Grades 9-12
6. Reading to Construct New Knowledge
Fluency Rate 4 Factors
1. Reading Genre
2. Maturity of Reader
3. Purpose of Reading
4. Grade Level
Vocabulary refers to the words a person has learned & uses to communicate effectively.
auditory processing of spoken words (includes listening and speaking vocabulary).
visual processing of printed words, focuses on understanding print and includes the words a person reads and understands.
is essential for engaging in oral communication, refers to spoken words an individual knows and understands when the person hears them.
the words a person uses when communicating through speech.
the words a person uses when writing.
7 Instruction Strategies
1. Comprehension Monitoring
2. Cooperative Learning
3. Use of Graphic & Semantic Organizers
4. Question Answering
5. Generating Questions
6. Recognizing Story Starters
Remedial Reading Programs & Methods
- For students 1-6 grade. Groups of 5, 1-30 minute lesson, high structured. Positive reinforcement, change group after mastery of skill
- Companion to Reading Mastery. For students 4-12 grade. Works on decoding and comprehension. 35-45 minute sessions
The Orton-Gillingham Method
- Highly structured, phonetically oriented, multi-sensory approach. 5 lessons a week for a minimum of 2 years.
Wilson Reading System& Spalding Method are based on Orton-Gillingham method
Teaching Strategies In Reading
Phonemic Awareness- Elkonin Boxes
Phonics- Word Work
Fluency- Repeated readings & neurological impress method
Vocabulary- Keyword method & storybook reading
Comprehension- Reciprocal teaching & mapping strategies
Reading & Study Skills for Adolescents
I-Isolate the Prefix
S-Separate the suffix
S-Say the stem
E-Examine the stem
C-Check with someone
T-Try the dictionary
S-Survey the headings and subheadings
C-connect the segments
R-read the heading segment
O-Outline the major ideas and supporting details
L-Look at the heading segment
-Read and reread their favorite selctions aloud to them & talk about front, bottom, top and back of the book, pages, pictures and text
Teach nursrey rhymes
1. Say 3 words and have the child select the word that doesn't belong (tall, mall, dog)e a marker to indicate the number of words in utterance.
2. Say a phrase or sentence and have the child tap out with a stick, make marks with clak or mov
3. Say two words and ask the child to indicate whether the words sound alike.
4. Say two syllables and have the child blend them into a word.
5. Say a word ad have the child tap or count out the number of syllables in the word.
6. Say a two-syllable word and ahve the child segment the word into syllables.
7. Say 4 words and have the child select the word that does not rhume with the other words.
8.Have the child participate in rhyming activities such as providing a wlrd that rhymes with a dictated word or matchig pictures whose names rhyme.
9. Say the small parts of a word and have the child put the parts together (blending) to make the whole word.
10. Say a target word and two other words. Have the child choose the word that rhymes with the target word.
Reading Activities Continued
Word Game Board
Tape Recorder Reading
Statistics for students who are poor readers
10-15% of students who will drop out of school, over 75% report reading difficulties
2% of students receiving special ed for reading difficulties will complete a 4 year college program
More than 60% of prisoners are functionally illiterate
60% of adolescents with a history of substance abuse have reading difficulties
Of children living in poverty, 76% cannot read at a proficient level
The Reading Process
Decoding- Converting print to speech
Language- Phonological awareness Vocabulary knowledge
Strategies- Comprehension monitoring ( Do I understand what I just read?)
Fluency- Ability to read accurately and with expression, phrasing, and intonation
Experiences- Early language experiences such as conversations & storybook readings
Assessment of Reading Skills
Standardized Tests- Helps to determine which students are have reading difficulties (
Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement
Diagnostic Tests- Provide more precise, comprehensive analysis of specific reading abilities and disabilities (
Woodcock Johnson IV Reading Battery
Criterion-Referenced Tests- Helps teacher to understand what skills the student has learned, what skills are being learned, & what skills still must be taught (
Phonological Awareness & Literacy Screening (PALS
Informal Assessment- Examine student's daily work or teacher made tests, includes observations
Graded Word Lists- Examines student's word recognition skills
(Qualitative Reading Inventory 4
Curriculum-Based Measurement- Direct observation and recording of student's performance in the school curriculum (Can be charted weekly to monitor progress)
Portfolio Assessment- Collection of materials that reflect the student's reading history and accomplishments as a reader
Teacher-Made Test- Can be informal test to obtain a quick estimate of a specific skill
Elkonin Boxes (Phonemic Awareness)
Apex- Highest point
The ape is sitting on the highest point, apex, of a rock
Setting (Characters, time, place)
b c f m
Word Work (Phonics)