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Teaching Reading

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on 29 January 2015

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Transcript of Teaching Reading

1. Phonemic Awareness
- ability to manipulate the smallest units of sound
2. Phonics Instruction
- helps children understand the relationship between letters and their sounds
3. Reading Fluency
- Ability of the reader to read text accurately, with expression, and at a speed that facilitates understanding.
4. Vocabulary Instruction
- Unless students understand the words they read, they can't comprehend text
5. Comprehension
- Understanding what was read
5 Essential Components
Phonics Instruction
6 Phonics Instruction Approaches

1. Analogy-Based Phonics
2. Analytic Phonics
3. Embedded Phonics
4. Phonics Through Spelling
5. Onset-Rime Phonics Instruction
6. Synthetic Phonics

Fluency Instruction
Phonological Awareness
5 Recommendations to Enhance the Effectiveness of Phonological Awareness Instruction

1. Focus first on the auditory features of words.

2. Move from explicit, natural segments of language to the more implicit and complex.

3. Use phonological properties and dimensions of words to enhance performance.

4. Scaffold blending and segmenting through explicit modeling.

5. Integrate letter-sound correspondence once learners are proficient with auditory tasks.
Chapter 8 EDSE 651
By Wendy & Marta

Teaching Reading

Fluency & Stages of Reading Development
1. Prereading (Emergent Literacy)-Kindergarten
2. Decoding- Grades 1-2
3. Confirmation and Fluency-Grade 3
4. Reading to Learn-Grades 4-8
5. Reading for Multiple Viewpoints-Grades 9-12
6. Reading to Construct New Knowledge

Fluency Rate 4 Factors
1. Reading Genre
2. Maturity of Reader
3. Purpose of Reading
4. Grade Level
Vocabulary Instruction

Vocabulary refers to the words a person has learned & uses to communicate effectively.
*Oral Vocabulary-
auditory processing of spoken words (includes listening and speaking vocabulary).
*Reading Vocabulary-
visual processing of printed words, focuses on understanding print and includes the words a person reads and understands.
*Listening Vocabulary-
is essential for engaging in oral communication, refers to spoken words an individual knows and understands when the person hears them.
*Speaking Vocabulary-
the words a person uses when communicating through speech.
*Writing Vocabulary-
the words a person uses when writing.

Comprehension Instruction

7 Instruction Strategies
1. Comprehension Monitoring
2. Cooperative Learning
3. Use of Graphic & Semantic Organizers
4. Question Answering
5. Generating Questions
6. Recognizing Story Starters
7. Summarizing

Remedial Reading Programs & Methods
Reading Mastery
- For students 1-6 grade. Groups of 5, 1-30 minute lesson, high structured. Positive reinforcement, change group after mastery of skill

Corrective Reading
- Companion to Reading Mastery. For students 4-12 grade. Works on decoding and comprehension. 35-45 minute sessions

The Orton-Gillingham Method
- Highly structured, phonetically oriented, multi-sensory approach. 5 lessons a week for a minimum of 2 years.

Wilson Reading System& Spalding Method are based on Orton-Gillingham method

Teaching Strategies In Reading
Phonemic Awareness- Elkonin Boxes

Phonics- Word Work

Fluency- Repeated readings & neurological impress method

Vocabulary- Keyword method & storybook reading

Comprehension- Reciprocal teaching & mapping strategies

Reading & Study Skills for Adolescents
Study Skills
1. Survey
2. Question
3. Read
4. Recite
5. Review
Learning Strategies

I-Isolate the Prefix
S-Separate the suffix
S-Say the stem
E-Examine the stem
C-Check with someone
T-Try the dictionary

S-Survey the headings and subheadings
C-connect the segments
R-read the heading segment
O-Outline the major ideas and supporting details
L-Look at the heading segment
Reading Activities

-Read and reread their favorite selctions aloud to them & talk about front, bottom, top and back of the book, pages, pictures and text
Teach nursrey rhymes
1. Say 3 words and have the child select the word that doesn't belong (tall, mall, dog)e a marker to indicate the number of words in utterance.
2. Say a phrase or sentence and have the child tap out with a stick, make marks with clak or mov
3. Say two words and ask the child to indicate whether the words sound alike.
4. Say two syllables and have the child blend them into a word.
5. Say a word ad have the child tap or count out the number of syllables in the word.
6. Say a two-syllable word and ahve the child segment the word into syllables.
7. Say 4 words and have the child select the word that does not rhume with the other words.
8.Have the child participate in rhyming activities such as providing a wlrd that rhymes with a dictated word or matchig pictures whose names rhyme.
9. Say the small parts of a word and have the child put the parts together (blending) to make the whole word.
10. Say a target word and two other words. Have the child choose the word that rhymes with the target word.

Reading Activities Continued

Pocket Chart
Rotating Circle
Vowel Spinner
Blend Game
Phonics Rummy
Word Game Board
Word Baseball
Comprehension Game
Punch-Through Cards
Clothespin Wheel
Poke Box
Tape Recorder Reading

Statistics for students who are poor readers
10-15% of students who will drop out of school, over 75% report reading difficulties

2% of students receiving special ed for reading difficulties will complete a 4 year college program

More than 60% of prisoners are functionally illiterate

60% of adolescents with a history of substance abuse have reading difficulties

Of children living in poverty, 76% cannot read at a proficient level
The Reading Process
Decoding- Converting print to speech

Language- Phonological awareness Vocabulary knowledge


Strategies- Comprehension monitoring ( Do I understand what I just read?)

Fluency- Ability to read accurately and with expression, phrasing, and intonation

Experiences- Early language experiences such as conversations & storybook readings

Assessment of Reading Skills
Standardized Tests- Helps to determine which students are have reading difficulties (
Woodcock Johnson IV Tests of Achievement

Diagnostic Tests- Provide more precise, comprehensive analysis of specific reading abilities and disabilities (
Woodcock Johnson IV Reading Battery

Criterion-Referenced Tests- Helps teacher to understand what skills the student has learned, what skills are being learned, & what skills still must be taught (
Phonological Awareness & Literacy Screening (PALS

Informal Assessment- Examine student's daily work or teacher made tests, includes observations

Graded Word Lists- Examines student's word recognition skills
(Qualitative Reading Inventory 4

Curriculum-Based Measurement- Direct observation and recording of student's performance in the school curriculum (Can be charted weekly to monitor progress)

Portfolio Assessment- Collection of materials that reflect the student's reading history and accomplishments as a reader

Teacher-Made Test- Can be informal test to obtain a quick estimate of a specific skill
Elkonin Boxes (Phonemic Awareness)

Keyword (Vocabulary)

Apex- Highest point

The ape is sitting on the highest point, apex, of a rock

Mapping (Comprehension)

Setting (Characters, time, place)





b c f m
Word Work (Phonics)
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