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Earth's Crust & Earth's Changes Brown 15-16

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Casie Brown

on 1 April 2016

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Transcript of Earth's Crust & Earth's Changes Brown 15-16


•nutrients come from minerals or organic matter in soil

•pH: a measure of the acidity of soil
•farmers may apply lime to make soil less acidic

•spaces between particles
•air and water move through these spaces
•plants need water and air to grow
Pore Space:
Soil is a mixture of 4 materials:

1. weathered rock particles
2. organic matter (comes from living organisms)
3. water
4. air

Soil composition (p.123)
Read about the layers of soil called soil horizons p. 124

soil horizon: a layer of soil with different properties than the layers above and below it.
Soil horizons (p.124)

A Horizon:
•Upper layer
(usually called topsoil)
•Mostly organic matter
•Dark color
(has a lot of humus)

B Horizon:
•Not much organic matter
•Has clay and minerals
•Reddish color

C Horizon:
•Deepest layer
•Largest rocks
brown color
Earth's Systems:

1. Earth's Cycles (Water Cycle)

Describe how water, carbon, and nitrogen travel across the Earth's surface, under the Earth's surface, and across the atmosphere
Describe how energy travels across an ecosystem

decayed organic matter in soil
•humus makes the soil black in color
Climate and landforms affect soil (p.124)

Different climates have different types of soil due to the differences in temperature, humidity, and types of weathered rocks that form the soil.
Read about the ingredients of soil
p. 123
(Earth's Surface Book)

Tropical is unsuitable for growing crops. Why?
•tropical soil
•arctic soil
•desert soil
•temperate soil

•Provide organic matter that is broken down to form humus

•add air to improve water drainage

•Decompose dead plant and animal matter

•Provide nutrients

•ex: nitrogen-fixing bacteria produce nitrogen that plants need to grow

•ex: some bacteria produce acids that break down rocks, which helps make soil
The activities of organisms affect soil (p. 126)
Read p. 126-127
•The large amount of rainfall washes away minerals from soil

•Tropical soil has only a thin layer of humus
Properties of soil can be observed & measured (p. 128)

•size of the weathered rock particles
•three categories based on particle size:
•sand: largest
•silt: smaller
•clay: smallest

•can be red, brown, yellow, green, black, white
•soil color determined by what the soil is made of
Example: Rhizobium is a bacteria that helps make nitrogen available to legumes like peas and beans.

Microscopic view of the bacteria
•loosen and mix soil
•bring rocks to the surface for weathering
This is a page from your book that has drawn a part of an ecosystem and inserted examples of how plants, animals, and microorganisms affect soil
A groundhog chamber...
Read about the
4 properties of soil p. 128-129
texture influences how easily air and water move through soil
This is a soil color chart scientists use to identify different soils. You may want to use colored pencils to draw a few different soil colors in your notes.
A graphic organizer can be used to help you remember the four ingredients of soil

Now you will summarize the key information about soil. Remember to include:
- 4 ingredients of soil
- Describe 3 soil horizons
- Explain 4 properties of soil

Read p. 16 about cycles
(Ecology Book)

Read p. 17 about the water cycle
(Ecology Book)
Read p. 18-19 about the carbon cycle
(Ecology Book)
Read p.19-20 about the nitrogen cycle
(Ecology Book)

Add color and detail to the box to complete the soil profile diagram. The Prezi picture will help you see what colors and textures to use.

This is blank in your notes....you will add the rest of the layer details and colors in your booklet
Earth's Changes
Earth's Crust

Evaluate how rock and fossil evidence are used to describe the changes that the Earth has undergone
Describe changes of the earth's surfaces through natural forces and manmade causes
Classify fossils based on their formation. (i.e., cast, mold, trace, true form)
Describe key parts that compose soil. (i.e. rock particles, water, and organic matter)
Illustrate using models or diagrams how the surface of the earth constantly changes
Compare and contrast the three types of rocks (i.e., sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous)

Read about mechanical weathering p. 115-117 (Earth's Surface Book)
Mechanical Weathering
Read about
chemical weathering
p. 118-119
(Earth's Surface Book)
Acid rain dissolving minerals in a stone statue
Rocks containing iron rusting (reddish-brown color)
Read about
erosion and deposition
p. 145
(Earth's Surface Book)

Read about how
glaciers can cause
weathering, erosion, & deposition
p. 168
(Earth's Surface Book)
Read about sediments and formation of sedimentary rock
p. 89-91
(Earth's Surface Book)
Before we begin our look at Earth's Changes and Earth's Crust, you will go on a little journey to a land far, far away...
This is Mrs. Brown and her brother, Jess, in 2005. Jess looks much different these days, but Mrs. Brown, well, uh, looks pretty much the same.
Toadstool park is located northwest of Crawford, NE on the map dot shown above. It took many many years to form its unique landscape features.
Mrs. Brown & Jess decided to try out a new camera with sweet poses...
...but most importantly for you....check out that funky rock in front of Jesse's head!
That's why this is called "Toadstool Park" (because the weird rock formations look like toadstools, or mushrooms!)
If it wasn't humans who shaped these funky rocks, how did the rocks get their shape?

Let's find out!
Review & Connection Words
water cycle
carbon cycle
nitrogen cycle
rock cycle
igneous rock
sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
mechanical weathering
chemical weathering
mold fossil
cast fossil
trace fossil
true form fossil

soil horizon
population density
natural resource
renewable resource
non renewable resource
Toadstool Park:

Toadstool Park looks the way it does due to water and wind weathering and erosion. The sedimentary rock that formed there was unevenly warn away to reveal toadstool-shaped rocks!
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Practice Review
The Grand Canyon was carved by the force of the Colorado River over millions of years.

See the layers of rock in the carved out walls?
If water carved the Grand Canyon over time, is this mechanical or chemical weathering?

Given your choice above, write down the name of the exact type of weathering that caused this (examples of types: ice wedging, acid rain, etc.)
The Grand Canyon formed as a result of MECHANICAL Weathering.

The type of mechanical weathering that caused the Grand Canyon's formation is ABRASION, or the force of friction between objects wearing the rock into smaller pieces. In this case, water abrasion caused the rock to break down.
Glaciers are huge ice sheets on top of land. These sheets of ice move slowly over land and are capable of all three processes we've discussed: weathering, erosion, and deposition.
At one point in the past, glacier covered the northern parts of North America as far south as Northwestern Kansas!

The boulder in the picture was found in Marshall County, Kansas. Strangely, the rock did not match any naturally occurring rock in the area. Geologist discovered the boulder had been picked up and moved by a glacier and then left behind in Marshall County (a long time ago).
The process by which the glacier moved the boulder is called _______________.

The process by which the glacier melted and left the boulder behind is called ____________.
The process by which the glacier moved the boulder is called EROSION.

The process by which the glacier melted and left the boulder behind is called DEPOSITION.
Acid rain is one type of chemical weathering.

Acid rain forms when gases like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide mix with rain, making it acidic.
What does acid rain do to cause chemical weathering?
Acid rain causes chemical weathering by dissolving some of the minerals in the rock.

This changes the rock's composition, or what it's made of, so it is a chemical change.
Recall: sediment gets laid down in layers before being cemented into rock
Read p. 78 to learn how igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks are formed
There are 2 types of weathering: mechanical weathering and chemical weathering
Mechanical weathering:

What is ice wedging?
What is abraision?
How do plant roots cause weathering?
What is pressure release?

Chemical weathering:

How does acid rain cause weathering
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