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The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 2nd ed. 2011. Laura A. King, McGraw-Hill, New York

Ed Rauscher

on 2 August 2018

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Transcript of Personality

Identify how you rate on each of the five traits.
Learning Goals:
Define personality and the psychodynamic perspectives
Humanistic perspectives
Trait perspectives.
Social-Cognitive Theories
Biological Theories
Personality assessment
a unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings and actions.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
One of the earliest perspectives, which emphasized unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud believed that most disorders originate from repressed memories or sexual and aggressive instincts hidden in the unconscious. He developed a form of therapy called
through his work with patients dealing with
, which is
described as physical symptoms without any
physical cause.
Freud came to understand that the hysterical symptoms stemmed from unconscious psychological conflicts.
These conflicts centered on experiences in which the person's drive for pleasure was thwarted by the social pressures of Victorian society.
Structures of Personality
Freud believed that personality had three structures: the
, the
, and the
is made up of innate biological instincts and urges. It is immature, impulsive and irrational. When primitive unconscious drives build up, the ID seeks immediate gratification to relieve the tension
works according to the pleasure principle, always seeking pleasure.
How would most people behave if we were all id?
According to Freud, as children experience the constraints of reality, a new element of personality is formed, ego.
deals with the demands of reality. Responsible for planning, problem solving, reasoning and controlling the potentially destructive energy of the id.
The ego abides by the
reality principle
; it tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society.
Whereas the
is completely unconscious, the ego is partially conscious. The
helps us to test reality.


and the
do not consider whether something is right or wrong.
Rather, the
is the harsh
internal judge of our bx.
is reflected in what we
often call our conscience and
evaluates the morality of our bx.
develops from internalized parental and societal standards. Violating its rules results in feelings of guilt.
Defense mechanisms
When the ego fails to satisfy both the id and the superego, anxiety slips into our conscious awareness. DM's are strategies used to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
is one of the most powerful defense mechanisms because it pushes unacceptable id impulses out of awareness and back into the unconscious mind.
Defense mechanisms are unconscious and when used in moderation they are not necessarily unhealthy.
Oral Stage
(0-18 months)
The infants’ pleasure center is around the mouth. Chewing, sucking, and biting are sources of pleasure.
Anal Stage
(18-36 months)
The child’s pleasure is centered on the anus and urethra and the eliminative functions that are associated with these areas.
Phallic Stage
(3-6 years)
Pleasure in this stage focuses on the genitals as the child discovers self stimulation.
Oedipus complex
occurs during this stage. The intense desire for a boy to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother.
Castration anxiety
also occurs during this stage and is the intense fear in a boy of being mutilated by his father.
Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development
Freud believed human beings go through universal stages of personality development.
Within each stage we experience sexual pleasure in on part of the body. These are called
Erogeonous zones
Freud thought that our adult personality is determined by the way we resolve conflicts between these early sources of pleasure and the demands of reality.
Latency Period
(6 - puberty)
After the stressful time of the phallic stage, the child represses all interest in sexuality
Genital Stage
(adol- adulthood)
It is the time of sexual reawakening. The source of sexual pleasure comes from outside the family.
Freud held that if a child's needs are not met or are overindulged at one psychosexual stage, the child may become
, and a part of his/her personality will remain stuck at that stage.
Adults fixated in the oral stage may orient their lives around their mouths--overeating, becoming alcoholic, smoking or talking a great deal.
Psychodynamic Critics and Revisionists
Freud had many critics that believed his thoughts on sexuality; early experiences, social factors, and the unconscious mind, were misguided.
Some criticism was:
sexuality is not the pervasive force behind personality
The first five years of life are not as powerful in shaping adult personality.
Sociocultural factors are more important than Freud believed.
The ego and conscious thought processes play dominant roles in personality.
Horney’s Sociocultural Approach
She argued against penis envy and said that both sexes envy the attributes of the other.
She argued that there was a need for security, not sex, and that this need was the prime motive in human existence.
Jung’s Analytical Theory
collective unconscious
is the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind.
are emotionally laden and
ideas and images that have a rich and symbolic meaning for people. Two of the main archetypes are the
which is a
, and the
, which is a

Images of the Anima
the personification of all feminine psychological tendencies in men.
Images of the Animus
The masculine inner personality present in the unconscious of the female
Adler’s Individual Psychology
Individual Psychology
is when people are motivated by purposes and goals. It is
, not pleasure, that is the key motivator.
He believed that social factors were more important than sexual motivation in shaping personality.
Adler thought that everyone strives for superiority by seeking to adapt, improve and master the environment.
Striving for superiority is our response to the uncomfortable feelings of inferiority
(Inferiority Complex)
is Adler's term for the individual's attempt to overcome imagined or real inferiorities or weaknesses by developing one's own abilities.
For example,
a person of small stature and limited physical abilities (like Adler himself) might compensate by excelling in academics.
Evaluating the Psychodynamic Perspectives:
Although psychodynamic theories diverged from Freud's orginal version, they share some principles:
Personality is determined by current experiences as well as early childhood experiences.
Personality can be better understood by looking at it developmentally.
We mentally transform our experiences, giving them meaning that shapes our personality
The mind is not all conscious; unconscious motives lie behind some of our puzzling bx.
The ind's inner world often conflicts with the demand of reality, creating anxiety that is not easy to resolve.
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Cont...
Humanistic Perspectives
The humanistic perspective stresses that a person has the capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose their own destiny, and positive human qualities.
The humanistic psychologist believes that everyone has the ability to cope with stress, control their lives, and achieve what they desire.
Humanistic theorists sought to move beyond Freudian psychoanalysis and behaviorism to a theory that might capture the rich and positive aspects of human nature.
Abraham Maslow believed that humanistic psychology neither dealt with Freudian drives nor with the stimulus-response principles of behaviorism. Maslow called Humanistic Psych-
The Third Force
Malsow believed that we can learn the most about personality by focusing on the very best examples of human beings----
Self Actualizers
is the innate motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being.
Maslow described self actualizers as spontaneous, creative and posessing a childlike capacity for awe. They are tolerant of others, a gentle sense of humor and likely to pursue the greater good.
Examples of Self-Actualized people; according to Maslow
Pablo Casals
Albert Einstein
Ralph Emerson
Elanor Roosevelt
However, Maslow's list of SA's is clearly biased.
Maslow focused on a particular historical context.
Maslow named considerably more men than women, and most were from Western cultures and European ancestry.
Roger's Approach
began his career as a psycho-therapist struggling to understand the unhappiness of the Ind he encountered in therapy.
In the knotted, anxious verbal stream of his clients, Rogers noted the things that seemed to be keeping them from reaching their full potential.
He believed we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life. We simply need the right conditions to thrive
Just as a sunflower seed, once planted in rich soil and given water and sunshine, will grow into a strong healthy flower...
all humans will flourish in the appropriate environment
The problem arises when our need for positive regard from others is not met unconditionally
Unconditional Positive Regard
being accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of one's behavior
Unfortunately, others often value us only when we behave in particular ways that meet
conditions of worth
Conditions of Worth:

These conditions are the standards we must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others.
For instance, parents might give their son positive
regard only when he achieves in school.
Conditions of worth can become part of who we think we ought to be. As a result, we can become alienated from our genuine feelings.
Rogers believed the person must reconnect with his/her true feelings and desires.
To achieve this reconnection the individual must experience a relationship that includes;
Unconditional Positive Regard
Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
The humanistic psychologists brought awareness to the way an Ind. perceives themselves and the world around them and that is the key element in personality.
Some believe that the humanistic perspective is too optimistic about human nature and overestimates the freedom and rationality of humans.
How important has your childhood been in the development of your adult personality?

Choose an experience or series of
experiences in childhood and
describe how they are represented
in your current personality.
Personality Structures Activity:
Consider the various scenarios or situations and describe how the
, the
, and the

would handle those situations.
Gordon Allport
believed that to understand healthy people, the focus must be on their lives in the present, not on their childhood experiences.
He believed that the study of personality should focus on healthy, well-adjusted individuals.
In defining personality, Allport believed that it should stress the
uniqueness of all individuals and their capacity to adapt to the environment.
The Five-Factor Model of
The big five factors of personality that are used to describe individuals are:
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism,
Evaluating the Trait Perspectives
Studying an individual according to their traits allows us to know a person better. Also, the traits an individual has influences their health, the way they think, their career choices, and their relations with others.
Critics argue that the trait approach is missing the importance of the situation in personality and behavior.
Social Cognitive Perspectives of Personality
The social cognitive perspective emphasizes
conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals.
Social cognitive theorists are not interested in traits, but they investigate how more specific factors such as
beliefs relate to behavior and performance.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura believed that behavior, environment, and both personal and cognitive factors are all important in understanding personality. He came up with the term reciprocal determinism to describe the way these interact to create personality.
Essentailly, bx is a product of a variety of forces, some of which come from the situation and some of which the person brings to the situation.
Observational Learning
Through observational learning, an individual forms ideas about the bx of others and then possibly adopts this bx themselves.
Personal Control
An individual can regulate and control one’s own behavior despite the changing environment.
Locus of control (internal or external)
the belief that an individual can master a situation and produce positive outcomes; how much effort they expend in coping with stress and how long they persist in the face of obstacles,
Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspectives
Critics of this approach argue that the social cognitive approach is too concerned with change and situational influences on personality
They argue that the approach ignores the role that biology plays in personality.
Does situational influences play a role in how people choose to behave? Does our behavior influence the environment? Does the way we perceieve a situation influence how we behave?
Biological Perspectives
Personality and the Brain
There has been a clear association between the brain and personality, noted since the story of Phineas Gage.
Eysenck’s Reticular Activation System Theory (RAS)
Extraverts and Introverts show a different baseline level of arousal in this system.
wake up in the morning under-aroused, which requires them to behave in ways that demonstrate extraversion in order to bring their arousal up to its optimal level.
wake up in the morning over-aroused, which requires them to behave in ways that demonstrate introversion in order to decrease their arousal level to its optimal baseline
Evaluating the Biological Perspectives
Biology can be the effect, not the cause of personality.
Whether personality is plastic is an important consideration in how biology impacts the shape of our personality. If personality is “caused” by biological processes, does it mean it is “fixed” or permanent?
Personality Assessment
Self-Report Tests
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used.
...also called an objective test and directly asks individuals whether specific items describe their personality trait.
The Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Personality Inventory—Revised is a self-report test geared at assessing the five factor model.
Projective Tests
...presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it. They are projecting their meaning onto the stimulus.
The Rorschach inkblot test
...is a projective test. It uses an individual’s perception of the inkblot to determine their personality.
Lets give it a try. The next few slides will be images from a Rorschach inkblot test. Take a moment and write down what you see. Afterwards I will ask you to get into a group of three or four and share the results.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
...designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personality. It consists of a series of pictures and the person taking the test is asked to tell a story about each of the pictures.
Tell a story about this picture
This link offers a large variety of personality assessments. They will give you an idea of different assessments and maybe a fun way to learn about yourself.
What parenting skills are also associated with incresed marital satisfaction?
A few questions we will consider
and answer in this section:
Can personality traits predict the type of music we like?
Why are such spurious personality assessments so popular?
One reason is, they seem to tap into our unique selves.
Supporters of horoscopes, however, ignore the fact that the traits they supposedly reveal are characteristics that almost everyone shares.
Unlike the pseudopsychologies such as these newspaper horoscopes and Chinese fortune cookies, the descriptions presented by personality researchers are based on empirical studies.
In this chapter, we examine the most prominent theories and up-to-date findings in personality research.
Freud developed a theory of personality that has been one of the most influential--and controversial---theories in all of science.
For Freud, the unconscious is all-
important b/c it stores our most
instinctual motives, and has an
enormous impact on our behavior--like the hidden part of an iceberg.
Interestingly, b/c many of our unconscious thought and motives are unacceptable and threatening, Freud believed that they are normally
(held our of awareness)--
--unless they are unintentionally revealed by
slips of the tongue
, later called
Freudian slips
Freudian slips affect one in sex people
When the ego fails to satisfy both the id and the superego, anxiety slips into our conscious awareness.
Because anxiety is uncomfortable, we avoid it through
Defense Mechanisms
Freud believed DM's help us deal with unconscious conflicts. DM's can be healthy and helpful if we use them in moderation or on a temporary basis.
Refusing to accept an unpleasant reality
Transferring unacceptable thoughts, motives or impulses to others
Being fixated at the anal stage may lead to highly controlled and compulsively neat
(anal retentive)
or messy, disorderly, rebellious and destructive
(anal expulsive)
Trait Theories
Think for a moment about the key personality characteristics of your best friend: "A great guy, fun to be with..."
We generally use terms that refer to that person's most frequent and typical characteristics.
These unique and defining characteristics are the foundation for the

trait approach
A relatively stable personality characteristic that can be used to describe someone.
Hans Eysenck;
a trait theorist, described personality as a relationship among three basic typs of traits
(tendency toward insecurity, guilt, anxiety
(being out of touch with reality
The most promising modern trait theory
Q#2 Answer:
The FFM allow us to predict real-life preferences and bxs. Using the FFM,
People who are
have been found to prefer upbeat, energetic and rhythmic types of music, such as rap and hip-hop.
People who are
open to experience
prefer complex, intense, and rebellious music, such as classical and rock.
This assessment takes approx 10-15min.
If we have innate tendencies toward growth and fulfillment, why are so many people so unhappy?
Parents who engage in responsive caregiving, a form of unconditional positive regard, also tend ot show this same pattern of bx toward their spouses, which inturn leads to higher levels of relationship satisfaction.
Everyone has a personality. We often hear the terms good or bad personality.
What does that mean?
Where does personality come from?
Can personality change over time?
These are questions we will explore
1st, as an introduction to personality...
Then, mark each trait as positive or negative
Are there any traits you would like to change? why?
Where do you think personality comes from?
Write down traits or charactersitsics that describe you.
Do you agree?
How many of you would define yourselves as an....
With a show hands, which percentage of personality is due to
Genetics ?
Do you know anyone that embodies these characteristics?
Redirecting socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable activities
Redirecting impulses from the original source
toward a less threatening person or object.
Jung argued, the unconscious contained
positive & spiritual motives
Do you believe personality remains stable or changes over time?
10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,or 100%
Researchers examined personality
traits in 243 people age 95+
discovered that these older
adults were more likely to show
traits, such as optimism, extraversion, & conscientiousness. They were less likely to show other traits, such as negative affect (Kato et al., 2012). Can you see how these findings indicate that personality traits may help predict how long we live?
Test your level of Self-Actualization http://similarminds.com/cgi-bin/maslow.pl
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