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Hinduism

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Mindy Ngo

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Hinduism

Hinduism
Religion
• The scriptures were called Vedas which was believed to be created around 2000-500 BCE.

• One theory about where the religion developed was from a group called Aryans who derived from present-day southern Russia.

• The second theory (Aryan migration theory) says instead of one single group, repeated waves of migrations into Pakistan and northern India.

• The Vedas worshipped mostly male gods.

• Worshipping of the gods took place at outdoor fire altars.

• Offerings such as milk, grains, and the sacrifice of a special horse occurred during these outdoor gatherings.
Vedas
Made up of four sacred texts.

• Rig Veda (hymn knowledge)- Collection of more than a thousand chants to the Aryan gods

• Yajur Veda (ceremonial knowledge)- contains matter for recitation during sacrifice

• Same Veda (chant knowledge)- a handbook of musical elaborations of Vedic chants

• Atharva Veda (knowledge from Atharva)- Consists of practical prayers and charm to protect against snakes and sickness.

• These four Vedas later make up a group called the
Upanishads which express ideas of philosophical and religion.
The Prince Arjuna is on the left. The God Vishnu, in the form of Krishna, is on the right.
The Bhagavad Gita
Caste System
Stages of Life
Goals of Life
"The Six Yogas"
The Knowledge Yoga
"The oneness of everything."
Principle figure: Shankara
Yoga 1: Jnana Yoga
Yoga 2: Karma Yoga
The Action Yoga
"Desire for the fruits of your work must never be your motive for working."
Yoga 3: Bhaki Yoga
Devotion Yoga
"Devotion to a god, saint, parent, or spouse"
Yoga 4: Raja Yoga
Royal Yoga
"Empty your mind"
Yoga 5: Hatha Yoga
Force Yoga
The is the type we normally think when we hear the word yoga.
Yoga 6: Kundalini Yoga
"She who lies coiled"
Religious Visit!
Hinduism and the Arts
Profusion
Symbolism
Murals and yantras
Sculptures
Hinduism and the Arts
Bhakti yoga
Ragas
Indian classical dance
British Christians helped challenge and change Hindu beliefs and practices
Modern Challenges
Hindu Influence Beyond India
Modern Challenges
Alexander the Great's desire to conquer
Mohandas Gandhi
(1869-1948)
Nonviolence
Vegetarian
Studied law in London
Indian dependence
Salt March of 1930
"Ram, Ram"
Satyagraha
ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness)
Hare Krishna movement
Found by Swami Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada in 1967
Traditional form of Hindu religious life
Contemporary Issues
Conservative teachings of traditional Hinduism
Untouchables
Caste system
Women
Contemporary Issues
Interreligious disharmony
Conflict between Hindus and Muslims
Hindus destroyed a mosque in India
Disagreement about the border
Government fails to protect
Intrusion of contemporary values
Individualism
Women's rights
Sexual freedom
Modern fashion
Consumerism
Contemporary Issues
Hindu Influence
Beyond India
Influence on the West
Translations of the Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita
Transcendentalism
Swami Vivekananda
Commercial air travel
The Beatles and the Maharishi
Hindu Influence Beyond India
Everyone tried to take over parts of India
Mix of monotheistic Islam and polytheistic Hinduism
Islam (sultanate) and Britain (Mughal dynasty)
Ban of the sati - to be burnt alive
Rom Mohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj movement
Thanks to Hindu traders and immigrants!

Once widespread in India
Off to Bali
Mix of folk religion and Buddhism
Dances and shadow puppets
• Hinduism first came about in India.

• India is isolated by 2 seas and the Himalayas mountains.

• Because it is isolated, the religion and culture is rich.
India
Civilization
• Civilization was advanced as the cities contained regular streets and brick houses. There was also evidence of pots and coins. They even had running water used for toilets and baths which was believed to be only developed by the Romans.

• They even had a writing system that is still being deciphered today.
Upanishads
• Around 500 BCE more religions starting to arise and questioning of the Vedas religion happened.

• The earlier Vedic material dictated that only hereditary priests can be religious masters, but the Upanishads says that any person with religious experience can be a spiritual master.

• There are 6 primary notions that became essential to Hindu spirituality.
• Brahman stood for cosmic power present in Vedic sacrifice and chants.

• The Upanishads expanded to mean a divine reality at the heart of things.

• Brahman is a feeling of holiness and unity of the world.

• Brahman is perceived as reality itself, pure consciousness, and bliss.

• Atman- sublevel which asks the question of what is my individual soul really is.
Brahman
• Maya is a saying that something is made of magic and matter.

• The Upanishads feel as the world is just like dreams in how everything can change.

• Hindus believe that when a life ends it is reborn, this is known as reincarnation.
Maya
• The concept of karma is the gifting of people and the punishment of others depending on their moral codes.

• Good karma brings a higher rebirth

• Bad karma brings a lower more painful form of rebirth.
Samsara
Refers to the wheel of life

• Cycle of rebirth
• Everyday is changing: struggle, frustration
• Hindus do not believe in YOLO
• Rebirth is constant and always so no spirit is left behind
• But how many of us truly wish to keep living on the cycle of life?
Moksha
Means freedom or liberation

• Ultimate human goal for the Upanishads
• Becoming free of absolute selfishness and pleasure or pain leads to freedom from egotism.
• Knowing the world is united and becoming one with releasing all limitations.
How Do Hindus Integrate Their Religion into Everyday Life?
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