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# Paper Chromatography

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by

## Caprice Calvez

on 16 March 2016

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#### Transcript of Paper Chromatography

Investigation Design
Hypothesis
Data Table
Procedure
Materials
Class 602
.
.
Hypothesis:
Independent Variable:
Dependent Variable:
The independent variable is solvent.
The dependent variable is the 2 different black inks (black marker and black pen ink).
I think the solvent will affect the black inks by breaking the ink up into different colors and will make the ink to spread upward on the strip. I expect this to happen because I know that inks are made of components. That means that they are made out of colors to make that black ink. I know that the solvent is made out of alcohol, and the alcohol is used to seperate the different components of the inks. The alcohol will make the ink spread upward because I thought that since the strip is sized like a rectangle facing up, the ink will spread in that direction.
How will the solvent affect the different black inks?
Paper Chromatography:
Caprice Calvez
Investigation Design
Step #1:
Cut filter paper strips into strips that are 2 cm wide and 6.5 cm long.

P.S. / I.S. 295 Q
Constants:
The constants are the temperature, type of water used, size of paper strips, and where the ink is placed onto the paper.
Procedure
Conclusion:

Literature Cited:
Science Buddies Staff. "Paper Chromatography: Is Black Ink Really Black?" Science Buddies. Science Buddies, 15 June 2015. Web. 19 Feb. 2016 <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p008.shtml>
Step #2:
Take one of the filter paper strips and use a ruler and pencil to draw a horizontal line 1 cm from the bottom of the strip.
Step #3:
Use the black pen to put a dot in the middle of the line 1 cm away from the bottom. After you have done this, repeat step 2 and 3 with another strip using the black marker.
Step #4:
With a pencil, on the filter strips, label the name of the black pen or marker.
You will need to use pencil to label because if you use a black pen or marker, the ink will run down the strip due to the solvent.
Step #5:
Make a 50% isopropyl alcohol by pouring 20 mL of 99% isopropyl alcohol into the 100 mL beaker. Add 20 mL of water to the beaker. Stir thoroughly with the wooden splint.Then, you pour the 40 mL of 50% isopropyl alcohol solution into the 500 mL beaker.
Step #6:
Then, you cover the 500 mL beaker with plastic wrap.

You have to put the plastic wrap on the beaker so the solvent does not evaporate.
Step #7:
Pour 8 mL of the solvent in the 100 mL beaker. Then you get the 2 filter paper strips with the dot on the line. You clip the 2 strips onto the wooden splint. You have to make sure the bottom of the strips are aligned and that the strips do no touch.
Step #8:
Next, you rest the wooden splint with the strips on the beaker and it cannot touch the sides of the beaker. The bottom of the strip must be touching the surface of the solvent.
You may add more solvent to the 100 mL beaker if the bottom of the strips does not touch the surface of the solvent.
Step #9:
Cover the 100 mL beaker with the plastic wrap. Also, you can cover the extra solvent in the 500 mL beaker with plastic wrap to save for extra trials of the experiment.
Step #10:
Wait until the solvent is 0.5 cm from the top and then you remove the wooden splint from the beaker. Look at the strip closely.
Look closely at the strip because the dye might run off the strip and the information you record might be misleading.
Step #11:
Last, use a pencil to mark how far the solvent rose. Then, let the strip dry for a few minutes. After that, compute the Rf value for each black pen or marker dye component.
Trials
Ink distance from origin
#1

#2

#3
Solvent distance
from origin
Rf Value
4.3 cm
3 cm
0.5 cm
0.5 cm
0.86
0.60
marker pen
marker pen
marker pen
4.5 cm
4 cm
4.3 cm
3.5 cm
0.5 cm
0.5 cm
0.5 cm
0.5 cm
0.90
0.80
0.86
0.70
Number of Trials:
3 trials
Based on the information from the data table and bar graphs, my hypothesis was correct that the solvent will affect the black inks by breaking up the inks into different colors and make the ink spread upward on the strip. The data table shows that the ink spread upward in various distances. The black marker ink spread upward 4.3 cm in the first trial, 4.5 cm in the second trial, and 4 cm in the third trial. The back pen ink spread upward 3 cm in the first trial, 4.3 cm in the secodn trial, and 3.5 in the third trial. In the bar graph, it shows how there were different colors showing on the strip from the 2 different black inks. For all trials, the black marker ink had the two colors, blue and red. Also, for all the trials, the black pen ink had the two colors, purple and yellow. One experimental error that I had was that there was not enough solvent for the bottom of the strips to reach. For the strips to reach the solvent, I doubled the solvent ingredients. A suggestion for further investigations is that I should buy a container with a small size of the length. My experiment and my results are related to real-world applications because according to http://www.academia.edu/1740111/Paper_Chromatography, slide 4, it said that in a Pharmaceutical Company, they use paper chromatography to determine the amount of each chemical found in a new product. As you can see, based on my data collected, my hypothesis was proven correct.
Number of Centimeters
5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0
Marker Pen
Trial #
5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0
Trial #
5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0
Number of Centimeters
Marker Pen
Ink Distance
Ink Distance
Materials
1. 6 filter paper strips
2. 100 mL beaker
3. 500 mL beaker
5. 99% isopropyl alcohol
6. 2 mini binder clips
7. plastic wrap
8. 3 wooden splints
9. black pen & marker
10. scissors
11. pencil
12. ruler/metric
13. water
14. 3 containers

Trial #
Number of Centimeters
5

4.5

4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0
Marker Pen
Ink Distance
Data Analysis

Based on my 3 bar graphs, both black marker and pen inks show 2 colors. The marker ink shows blue and red while the pen ink shows the colors purple and yellow. Another thing I noticed was that the bottom color on the strip has more distance than the distance of the top color on the strip.
Data Analysis

Based on my data table, the black marker has the most ink distance from the origin than the black pen. I also noticed in the chart that the solvent's distance from the origin were all the same (0.5 cm). The last thing I noticed for all the trials in the chart was that the black marker had the larger Rf value than the black pen.
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