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Goodies V Baddies

Are criminals born or made, and should we put them in jail?

Aaron Bach

on 5 August 2013

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Transcript of Goodies V Baddies


Should we put them in JAIL?
Patterns and Trends,
Health and Social Implications of Jail.
Serial Killers,
Are they Born or Made?
Jail in Australia,
Are we at risk of crime?
Crime portrayed

in the Media,
Who decides what a 'Crime' is?
Grew up with a fascination for guns and killed animals for fun
Classified as a psychopath
Currently serving 7 life sentences plus 18 additional years
Abducted,tortured and
7 backpackers.
Milat is 1 of 12 children in a poor and abusive family
Diagnosed with Anti-social Personality Disorder
Killed 35
and injured 23 in the Port Arthur Massacre.
Grew up in a
loving household
but was bullied relentlessly as a child
Port Arthur was the catalyst for Australia's current gun laws
Aims & Outline
PUB209 - 'The Drum'
Kara Reeves, Aaron Bach, Annika Brennan, Melissa Hill
Summary Nature v Nurture
Deficits in the frontal cortex, reduced grey matter, fewer neurons and increased white matter.
Reduced activity of the Paralimbic region; associated with moral reasoning and inhibition.
Area responsible for emotions (amygdala) is ~20% smaller in volume.
Family neglect or abuse
Poverty and family breakdown
These scenarios result in higher levels of environmental psychopathic risk factors
Maltreatment or trauma of children leads to anti-social behaviour
Strong correlations between anti-social psychology and adult psychopathic personality
Psychopathy is heritable
Psychopathy is a product of a traumatic childhood environment
A combination of both Nature and Nurture lead to the presence of psychopathy.
Social determinates - trends
As juveniles, 63% of indigenous males and 28% of indigenous female had some form of contact with the criminal justice system, compared to 13% non-indigenous males and the 7% non-indigenous females. This rates indigenous juveniles 4.5 times more likely to come into contact with the criminal justice system.
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology (2007). Facts and Figures.
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology (2007). Facts and Figures.
Social determinates - trends
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology (2007). Facts and Figures.
Socially Determine
- “A substantial body of longitudinal research demonstrates that persistent delinquent acts in adolescence emerge as the outcome of a predictable developmental trajectory of behaviour problems and aggression beginning in
Childhood”. Bor et al. (1998)
- Early determinants of antisocial personality include truancy, failure to perform academically, stealing.
Table 1: Juveniles vs. Adults offenders
- Juveniles are roughly 50% more likely to offend
Table 2: Offenders by age
Juvenile subgroup broken down, demonstrating 15-19 years at least 50% more likely to offend over any other age group
Table 5: Mental illness, homelessness and reoffenders
- Approximately 6% of males and females experienced homelessness in the previous month
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology (2007). Facts and Figures.
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology (2007). Facts and Figures.
Social determinates - trends
Table 3: Level of education
Approximately 50% had completed year 10 or less
Less than 5% had completed a university degree

Table 4: Sources of income
1/3 men recorded welfare as their main source of income, for women it was nearly 50%
‘Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an offender. A deviant is one to whom the label has been successfully applied; deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label’. –
Howard Becker
A mother hands her son a copy of the Newgate Calendar while pointing to a man in the distance hanging from a gibbet.
Risk of Crime
Bor, W. Najman, J. M. O’Callaghan, M. Williams, G. M. Anstey. (2001). Aggression and the development of delinquent behaviour in children. Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/E/9/7/%7BE97B2948-0072-474A-8339-400753BC0B5E%7Dti207.pdf

Sommerville, R. (2012). Conversations with Richard Filder – Rachel Sommerville – Conversation [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2012/09/06/3584582.htm

Bor, W. Anstey, K. Najman, J. M. O’Callaghan, M. Williams, G. Anderson, M. (1998). From childhood aggression to delinquency: causal pathways. Retrieved from http://www.criminologyresearchcouncil.gov.au/reports/4-95-6.pdf

Richards, K. (2011). What makes juvenile offenders different from adult offenders? Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/4/2/2/%7B4227C0AD-AD0A-47E6-88AF-399535916190%7Dtandi409.pdf

Australian Government. (2007). Australian Crime Facts and Figures 2007. Retrieved from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/5/6/8/%7B568C3490-EEDD-4C98-BDA8-861F0E624BFC%7Dfacts_and_figures_2007.pdf

Moy, K. L., Sallis, J. L., & David, K. J. (2010). Health indicators of native Hawaiian and pacific islanders in the United States. Journal of Community Health; 35, 81-92.

Beaver, K. M., Barnes, J. C., May, J. S., & Schwartz, J. A. (2011). Psychopathic personality traits, genetic risk, and gene environment correlations. Criminal Justice and Behaviour; 38(9), 896-912.

Walsh, A., & Wu, H. (2008). Differentiating antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and sociopathy: evolutionary, genetic, neurological, and sociological considerations. Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society; 21(2), 135-152.

Marshall, L. A., & Cooke, D. J. (1999). The childhood experiences of psychopaths: a retrospective study of familial and societal factors. Journal of Personality Disorders; 13(3), 211-225.

Viding, E. (2004). On the nature and nurture of antisocial behaviour and violence. Annals New York Academy of Sciences; 1036, 267-277.

Bezdjian, S., Raine, A., Baker, L. A., & Lynam, D. R. (2011). Psychopathic personality in children: genetic and environmental contributions. Psychological Medicine; 41, 589-600.

Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., Dodge, K. A., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., & Tully, L. A. (2005). Nature X nurture: genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology; 17(2005), 67-84.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2008). Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. The Annual Review of Clinical Psychology; 4, 217-246.

Viding, E., Frick, P. J., & Plomin, R. (2007). Aetiology of the relationship between callous- unemotional traits and conduct problems in childhood. The British Journal of Psychiatry; 190(49), 33-38.

Weber, S., Habel, U., Amunts, K., & Schneider, F. (2008). Structural brain abnormalities in psychopaths- a review. Behavioural Sciences and Law; 26, 7-28.

Hare, R. (1996). Psychopathy: a clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behaviour; 23(1), 25-54.

Berry- Dee, C., & Morris, S. (2009). Born killers: childhood secrets of the world’s deadliest serial killers. London: John Blake.

Davies, C. (2007). Sadistic killers: profiles of pathological predators. West Sussex: Sumersdale Publishers.

Jackson, R. (2008). Inside their minds: Australian killers. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.

Eley, T. C., Lichtenstein, P., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Sex differences in the etiology of aggressive and nonaggressive antisocial behaviour: results from two twin studies. Child Development; 70(1), 155-168.
At the age of 34, married his 16yr old girlfriend
"absence of empathy" - Ian Joblin, Forensic Psychologist
Serving 35 life sentences without parole
Killed animals for fun
Psychopathy = lack of emotions such as guilt, remorse.
Three key points against Born or Made:

Lynam, D. R. (1996). Early identification of chronic offenders: who is the fledging psychopaths. Psychological Bulletin; 120(2), 209-234.

Martens, W. H. J. (2000). Antisocial and psychopathic personality disorders: causes, course and remission- a review article. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology; 44(4), 406-430.

Viding, E. R., Blair, J. R., Moffitt, T. E., & Polmin, R. (2005). Evidence for substantial genetic risk for psychopathy in 7-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry; 46(6), 592-597.

ABC Science (2009). Understanding psychopaths. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/10/01/2701728.htmAustralian Bureau of Statistics. (2011).

Prisoners in Australia, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/3AF8DCD53CCE027BCA25795F000DB1E3?opendocumentAustralian Bureau of Statistics. (2012).

Recorded Crime – Victims, Australia, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/521F474AAB92634FCA257A150018FA0C?opendocument

Allard, T., Chrzanowski, A. & Stewart, A. (2012). Targeting crime prevention to reduce offending: Identifying communities that generate costly offenders. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 445, 1-8.

Chung, D., O’Leary, P. & Hand, T. (2006). Sexual violence offenders: Prevention and intervention approaches. Australian Centre for the Study of Sexual Assult Issues, 5, 1-54.

Indermaur, D. (1999). Situational prevention of violent crime: Theory and practice in Australia. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 8(1), 71-87.

Morgan, N. (2002). Sentencing trends for violent offenders in Australia. Crime Research Centre, University of Western Australia, 1-134.

Abend, G. (2008). Two Main Problems in the Sociology of Morality. Theory and Society, 37(2), 87-125. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40211030

Australian Institute of Criminology. (2011). Australian crime: Facts and figures. Canberra: Australian Government.

Boda, Z., & Szabo, G. (2011). The media and attitudes towards crime and the justice system: A qualitative approach. European Journal of Criminology, 8(4), 329-342.

Davis, B., & Dossetor, K. (2010). (Mis)perceptions of crime in Australia. Canberra: Australian Government.

Gur-Arye, M., & Fletcher, G. P. (2008). The Nature of Crime: A Synthesis, Following the Three Perspectives Offered in The Grammar of Criminal Law. Criminal Justice Ethics, 27(1), 91-103.

Leverentz, A. (2012). Narratives of Crime and Criminals: How Places Socially Construct the Crime Problem. Sociological Forum, 27(2), 348-371.

Marsh, I., & Melville, G. (2008). Crime, Justice and the Media. Oxford: Routledge.

Pollak, J. M., & Kubrin, C. E. (2007). Crime in the News: How Crimes, Offenders and Victims are Portrayed in the Media. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 14(1), 59-83.

Roach-Anleu, S. (2003). Deviance and social control. In R. Jureidini, & M. Poole, Sociology Australian Connections (3rd ed., pp. 312-339). Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.

Stewart, D., & Blocker, H. G. (2006). Fundamentals of Philosophy. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.Turnbull, S. (2010). Crime as entertainment: The case of the TV crime drama. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 24(6), 819-827.
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