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Macbeth Act 4 Scene 3
Transcript of Macbeth Act 4 Scene 3
Mike, Steph , Jill, Brayden Theme Development Key Passage Relationship Development The following are themes that I think relate to this specific scene, when Malcolm and Macduff are planning and arguing about invading Scotland and who would be a righteous king.
Trust and Loyalty
This scene demonstrates how many characters in the play
are disloyal and people are often worried about being betrayed. Macduff goes to visit Malcolm to try and convince him to come back to Scotland and try to overrule the tyrannous Macbeth. Malcolm is worried that Macduff might have something to gain by bringing Malcolm back to Scotland, he is worried Macduff wants to sabotage him, so he lies about his personality traits and how awful a king he would be, in efforts to get rid of Macduff's idea. Macduff is also considered disloyal because he abandoned his whole family back in Scotland when he knew there was danger. "Perchance even there where I did find my doubts.
Why in that rawness left you wife and child,
Those precious motives, those strong knots of love,
Without leave-taking? I pray you,
Let not my jealousies be your dishonors,
But mine own safeties. You may be rightly just,
Whatever I shall think." (Shakespear 4.3) Loyalty is a very important thing for a man to have as a characteristic in Macbeth.
Violence and Revenge
Violence is a very large factor in the overall play but in this
particular scene Macduff wants revenge for the violence Macbeth committed on his family. Macbeth gruesomely murdered Macduffs wife and children, Macduff blames himself for leaving them but then Malcolm suggests he should take out his grief with more violence. Macduff then vows he is going to murder Macbeth, committing action instead of thought. Violence and revenge affect every character in the book. Macbeth begins a wrath of violence because he is paranoid that others want to steal the throne so he commits murder after murder. Those people now want revenge on Macbeth and it is a never ending cycle which is why this theme is present in this scene and throughout the play. Macduff and Malcolm Beginning of Act 4 Scene 3 Malcolm is extremely cautious with Macduff. Macbeth has paid for spies to keep tabs on his nobles, and sends assassins after his enemies, which means it’s not safe to trust anyone from Scotland.
Macduff is also hesitant because he is unsure why Malcolm left Scotland in the first place and thinks that Malcolm could be working for Macbeth. Macduff describes Scotland's agony, but Malcolm remains very guarded.
He first tells Macduff, "What I believe I'll wail, what know believe, and what I can redress, as I shall find the time to friend, I will. What you have spoke, it may be so perchance" (4.3.8-11).
Malcolm says that he will cry only if he believes what Macduff is saying, and he will believe it if he knows it is true (most likely from of sources).
Also, he will take action only when he "shall find the time to friend," which means when time will be friendly in his favour.
Finally, everything that Macduff has been saying "may be so perchance," which means that it very well could be true.
Malcolm expresses his doubts for Macduff’s motives, and that Macduff could go back to Macbeth side, because Macbeth, "Was once thought honest: you have loved him well. / He hath not touch'd you yet" (4.3.13-14). The Test Malcolm tests Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland, by saying that once Macbeth is dead and gone there will be no hope for Scotland because Scotland will be worse off under his power.
Malcolm says that his greed and lust for women makes him have no king like quality that is needed to rule Scotland. Also when compared to Macbeth, “Black Macbeth will seem as pure as snow” (4.3.59-60). The Result Character Development Macduff sees no hope for Scotland anymore, “These evils thou repeat’st upon thyself have banished me from Scotland. O my beast, thy hope ends here!” (4.3.126-128)
After Malcolm hears this he sees that Macbeth is trustworthy and passes the test.
Malcolm tells Macduff that he was testing him to see his true reasons for coming to see Malcolm in England and that Malcolm is actually ready to become king. In the end this results in them agreeing on working together to fight against Macbeth. Summary Macduff’s and Malcolm’s relationship started off where they both didn’t trust each other, but after Malcolm saw that Macduff was trustworthy and cared for Scotland, they came to an agreement that they would work together to kill Macbeth and take his throne. Imagery Example 1 "To offer up a weak, poor, innocent lamb t'appease an angry god" (4.3.18-19) Example 2 Malcolm – The beginning of the scene Malcolm explains how dreadful and unappealing of a man he is. He cannot control himself around women, he cannot keep control of what he says or does and very greedy. However, that is not actually the case. Malcolm wants the best for Scotland, and he is actually very dependable, and needed to see that Macduff was the same way. Once he sees that he is ready to build in army and fight for what he believes in.
Macduff – Macduff is a willing to fight for Scotland, and does not like Macbeth, or think he is fit for the throne. Macduff is noble, honest and has a strong love for his country. Then, once he finds out he is alone, because his family has been murdered, he craves revenge. Macduff wants to kill Macbeth in order to save their country. Macduff loved his family and blames himself for their death, “Did heaven look on, and would not take their part? Sinful Macduff, They were all struck for thee! Naught that I am, not for their own demerits, but for mine, fell slaughter on their souls: heaven rest them now.” (4.3 261-265). Ross – In this scene Ross is just the messenger and tells Macduff his family has been murdered and it is the work of Macbeth. Leading Malcolm and Macbeth to believe Macebth has gotten more power hungry and senseless and will continue to get worse until he is stopped.
The Doctor – The doctor is only in this scene to tell the men the King of England has a healing power and there is an illness called “The Evil.” The only information given from the doctor is that the King is very powerful. Ambition and Power
This theme is prominent throughout the majority of the
play. Ambition is a characteristic almost everyone in the play possesses. It seems as if every character is scheming to gain more power over another. In this specific scene Macduff is trying to get help from Malcolm to corrupt Macbeth's power as king and take over Scotland again. In this case they are ambitious to change the country's state because Macbeth is destroying it, they want to restore Scotland to Malcom the rightful king. The power Macduff desires is for the better rather than the worst. Power is the factor that creates opportunities for the characters, without power they have no control over their lives or country. Macduff has an ambition to take back Scotland and make it a better place like it was before Macbeth became king. Power is what creates and corrupts us depending on who's hands it falls in. Courthouse In England SYMBOLISM Plot Advancement/Summary The scene begins with Malcolm and Macuff talking in a court room in England. To test Macduffs loyalty, Malcolm tells him he is an awful man and cannot control his actions, once Malcolm can see Macduff is still devoted to him, he tells him the truth and that he is not as awful as he said, and they make a plan to invade Scotland. A doctor interrupts the men to tell them there is sickness called “The Evil” and that people wait for the king because he has healing power with a single touch. Once the doctor leaves, Ross comes to the court room and informs Macduff his wife and children have been murdered. Since Macduff now has no one, he uses his grief and sadness to become angry and is looking for revenge on Macbeth. The scene ends with Macbeth and Malcolm making plans to make an army of the English soldiers and invade Scotland. Contrast Contrast - To set in opposition in order to show or emphasize differences. The first item in this scene is the court of law that Malcolm and Macduff are in during the length of the scene. This represents truth and honesty in the scene and novel. "Macduff, this noble passion,
Child of integrity, hath from my soul
Wiped the black scruples, reconciled my thoughts
To thy good truth and honor. Devilish Macbeth
By many of these trains hath sought to win me
Into his power." (Shakespeare 4.3) They are standing in a court, a place where the truth should always be told but Malcolm is lying about who he really is too Macduff because he does not believe Macduff to be trustworthy. This symbol represents truth and trust within the play, no one can ever be trusted until they are forced to tell the truth and prove themselves to be loyal. A Court Of Law Map A map is a symbol of travel and exploration but in
this scene I am relating it too the invasion Macduff and Malcolm want to plan on Scotland. "Of many worthy fellows that were out;
Which was to my belief witnessed the rather
For that I saw the tyrant’s power afoot.
Now is the time of help. Your eye in Scotland
Would create soldiers, make our women fight,
To doff their dire distresses." (Shakespeare 4.3) The map represents their plan to invade Scotland, their home country but they are now invading it as if it is not their place anymore. The map represents the idea of home and how Scotland does not seem like home to Macduff or Malcolm anymore because of Macbeth's corruption. The map is their only tool when they are lost in the world and without a home country. "Defend our fallen homeland like honorable men." The map is what will lead them back home again and take back what was theirs to begin with. Sword A sword represents violence and
war, and it is definitely something that is
present in the play but not physically in this scene. Characters are always using violence as their first and only option. "Let us rather Hold fast the mortal sword and, like good men, Bestride our downfall'n birthdom." (Shakespeare 4.3) In Macbeth the only way to fix a problem is to physically fight about it. The sword symbolizes all the unnecessary violence that happens because of Macbeth and how Macduff's first idea was to draw their swords and attack Macbeth. Sometimes war is not the answer but in their particular situation attacking Macbeth is the only way to restore Scotland. In this scene the sword symbolizes their only chance too take over Scotland before it is destroyed, for Macduff and Malcolm a sword is their only option. It also symbolizes their strength and determination to make Scotland a good place again. Key Passage In Act 4 scene 3, there is a contrast between appearance and reality. The reality is Malcolm’s true behaviour and loyalty. His negative self-description is used to see if Macduff has the positive rational thinking, trust in Malcolm and is patriotic to Scotland. Malcolm is nothing like how he first described himself, however describing himself that way, and having Macduff still trust him, shows the difference in who Malcolm really is, and how he has acted around Macduff in the past. Malcolm uses contrast to prove that it is easy to be deceived from the truth, like Macbeth has been doing. Using his appearance Malcolm shows how different he is from Macbeth and why Macbeth should no longer be the ruler of Scotland. This contrast reappears in the play when Macbeth is seen as a good man, but is really a power hungry killer, “Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, yet grace must still look so.” (4.3 26-27) Macbeth, with the help of Lady Macbeth is convincing people throughout the play that he is not crazy, and is okay to rule the country. Once people see the reality of the situation, it is easy to see how different Macbeth truly is to who he wants people to think he will be. "Where sighs and groans and shrieks the rend the air, are made not mark'd; where violent sorrow seems a modern ecstasy; the dead man's kneel is there scarce ask'd for who; and good men's lives expire before the flowers in their caps, dying or ere they sicken. " (4.3. 189-194) In Act 4, Scene 3, MacDuff comes to England requesting for Malcolm to march to Scotland with his English soldiers to defeat the tyrant king MacBeth. Malcolm tests MacDuff throughout the scene, questioning his true intentions. Malcolm doesn't know if MacDuff truly cares for the future of Scotland or if he simply wants revenge for MacBeths actions. After trying tricking MacDuff into thinking Malcolm would be a bad king, MacDuff exclaims "Fare thee well! These evils thou repeat’st upon thyself have banished me from Scotland.—O my breast, Thy hope ends here!" (4.3.125-127) At this point Malcolm is convinced that MacDuff has nothing except positive intentions.
Malcolm replies "Macduff, this noble passion, child of integrity, hath from my soul wiped the black scruples, reconciled my thoughts to thy good truth and honor." (4.3.129-132) Basically exclaiming that all of Malcolm's doubts toward MacDuff have now been risen and that this outburst basically convinced Malcolm of his true intentions. He goes on to explain how he was testing MacDuff to figure out his true intentions and that he will invade Scotland and take the throne with MacDuff and 10 000 troops.
This passage is important to the scene and the play because it proves MacDuffs intentions and that the horrible things Malcolm said about himself were not true. It also was important because this was the reason Malcolm went to Scotland and took the throne from Macbeth Scene Purpose Scene Purpose Act 3, Scene 4, is one of the most important scenes in the play because Malcolm decides to join MacDuff in overthrowing MacBeth's throne. The scene is really tense because Malcolm is testing MacDuff throughout the scene which you don't actually find out until later in the scene after Malcolm names off his many problems and his reasons to why he would be an awful king.
The scene is also important because Malcolm ends up trusting MacDuff and as a result, they both end up marching back to Scotland to defeat MacBeth and take his throne.
Without the determination of MacDuff in this scene Malcolm wouldn't have sent his 10, 000 English soldiers to Scotland and MacBeth would never have been killed. If it weren't for MacDuff, Malcolm would have never gone for the throne and MacBeth would have kept his throne.
This scene is really important to the outcome of the play because without Malcolm and his very large army MacDuff wouldn't have had the necessary firepower to overthrow MacBeth. This is Ross speaking to Macduff about the Scotland and how things are getting worse. In this quote he is vividly describing the sounds and emotions of the dying people in Scotland. Also, that death is happening so frequently that when the people hear the funeral bell ring that they no longer ask who died. And that people are dying so quickly they, “expire before the flowers in their hat”. This is Malcolm speaking to Macduff, Malcolm is trying to figure out Macduff’s true intentions for coming to see him in England. Malcolm is referring to himself as the weak, poor, innocent lamb and the angry god as Macbeth. Malcolm is accusing Macduff for secretly working for Macbeth, and is referring to himself as a sacrificial lamb because he is a young man and not worth much. Being young and not worth much would make it easy for Macduff to betray Malcolm. This would be an easy way for Macduff to get on Macbeth’s good side.