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Copy of PLANNING TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES
Transcript of Copy of PLANNING TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES
Various experts define planning in various ways, all of which are designed to suit specific purposes.
PLANNING AT VARIOUS MANAGEMENT LEVELS
Planning activities undertaken at various levels are as follows:
1. Top management level - strategic planning
2. Middle management level - intermediate planning
3. Lower management level - operational planning
PARTS OF THE VARIOUS FUNCTIONAL AREA PLANS
TYPES OF PLANS
Plans are of different types. They may be classified in terms of functional areas, time horizon, and frequency of use.
THE NATURE OF PLANNING
A plan, which is the output of planning, provides a methodical way of achieving desired results. In the implementation of activities, the plan serves as a useful guide. Without the plan, some minor tasks may be afforded major attention which may, later on, hinder the accomplishment of objectives.
The process of planning consists of various steps depending on the management level that performs the planning task. Generally, however, planning involves the following:
1. setting organizational, divisional, it unit goal
2. developing strategies or tactics to reach those goals
3. determining resources needed and
4. setting standards
PLANNING TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES
Planning will constitute the most important activity. Manager who plan are afforded with the opportunity to carefully analyze situations which directly contribute to effective decision-making.
Planning, according to Nickels and others, refers to “the management functions that involves anticipating future trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational objectives.”
Aldag and Stearns, on the other hand, defined planning as "the selection and sequential ordering of tasks required to achieve an organizational goal.”
While the definition of Cole and Hamilton is "deciding what will be done, who will do it, where and how it will be done, and the standards which it will be done. "
In summary planning define as selecting the best course of action so that the desired result may be achieved. It must be stressed that the desired result takes first priority and the course of action chosen is the means to realize the goal.
The term strategic planning refers to the process of determining the major goals of the organization and the policies and strategies for obtaining and using resources to achieve those goals.
Intermediate planning refers to "the process of process of determining the contributions that subunits can make with allocate resources".
The term operational refers to "the process of determining how specific tasks can best be accomplished on time with available resources ."
Setting Organizational, Division, or Unit Goals
The first task of the engineer manager is to provide a sense of direction to his firm, to his division, or to his unit. The setting of goals provides an answer to the said concern. If everybody in the firm is aware of the goals, there is a big chance that everybody will contribute his share in the realization of such goals.
may be define as the "precise statement of results sought, quantified in time and magnitude, where possible. "
Developing Strategies or Tactics to Reach Goals
The next task is to devise some meas to realize them. The ways to realize. the goals are called strategies and these will be the concern of top management. The middle and lower management will adapt their own tactics to implement their plans.
may be defined as "a course of action aimed at ensuring that the organization will achieve its objectives. "
Determining Resources Needed
When particular sets of strategies or tactics have been devised, the engineer manager will, then, determine the human and nonhuman resources requirements are currently available, they must be specified.
The quality and quantity of resources needed must be correctly determined. Too much resource in terms of either quality or quantity will be wasteful. Too little will mean loss of opportunities for maximizing income.
To satisfy strategic requirements, a general statement of needed resources will suffice. The specific requirements will be determined by the different units of the company.
The standard for measuring performance may be set at the planning stage. When actual performance does not match with the planned performance, corrections may be made or reinforcement given.
A standard may be defined as "a quantitative or qualitative measuring device designed to help monitor the performances of people, capital goods, or processes.”
An example of a standard is the minimum number of units that must be produced by a worker per day in a given work situation.
Functional Area Plans
Plan may be prepared according to the needs of the different functional areas. Among the rules of functional area plans are the following:
1. Marketing plan - this is the written document or blueprint for implementing and controlling an organization's marketing activities related to a particular marketing strategy.
2. Production plan - this is a written document that states the quantity of output a company must produce in broad terms and by product family.
3. Financial plan - it is a document that summarizes the current financial situation of the firm, analyze financial needs, and recommends a direction for financial activities.
4. Human resource management plan - it is a documents that indicates the human resource needs of a company detailed in terms of quantity and quality and based on the requirements of the company's strategic plan.
Plan with Time Horizon
Plans with the horizon consist of the following:
1. Short-range plans - these are plans intended to cover a period of less than one year. First-line supervisor are mostly concerned with these plans.
2. Long-range plans - these are plans covering a time span of more than one year. These are mostly undertaken by middle and top management.
Plans According to Frequency of Use
According to frequency of use, plans may be classified as:
1. standing plans and
2. single-use plans
Standing plans - these are plans that are used again and again, and they focus on managerial situations that recur repeatedly.
Standing plans may be further classified as follows:
1. Policies - they are broad guidelines to aid managers at every level in making decisions about recurring situations or function.
2. Procedures - they are plans that describe the exact series of actions to be taken in a given situation.
3. Rules - they are statements that either require or forbid a certain action.
Single -Use Plans- these plans are specifically developed to implement courses of action that are relatively unique and are unlikely to be repeated.
Single-use plans may be further classified as follows:
A budget, according to Weston and Brigham, is "a plan which sets forth the projected expenditure for a certain activity and explains where the required funds will come from."
A program is a single-use plan designed to coordinate a large set of activities.
A project is a single-use plan that is usually more limited in scope than a program and is sometimes prepared to support a program.
The Contents of the Marketing Plan
The structure and content of marketing plans vary depending on the nature of the organizations adapting them. William Cohen maintains that the following must be included in the marketing plan.
1. The Executive Summary - which presents an overall view of the marketing projects and it's potential.
2. Table of Contents
3. Situational Analysis and Target Market
4. Marketing Objectives and Goals
5. Marketing Strategies
6. Marketing Tactics
7. Schedules and Budgets
8. Financial Data and Control
The Content of the Production Plan
The production plan must contain the following
1. The amount of capacity the company must have
2. How many employees are required?
3. How much material must be purchased?
The Contents of the Financial Plan
The components of the financial plan are as follows.
1. An analysis of the firm's current financial condition as indicated by an analysis of the most recent statements
2. A sales forecast
3. The capital budget
4. The cash budget
5. A set of pro forma (or projected) financial statements
6. The external financing plan
Contents of the Human Resources Plan
The human resources plan must contain the following:
1. Personnel requirements of the company
2. Plans for recruitment and selection
3. Training plan
4. Retirement plan
PARTS OF THE STRATEGIC PLAN
The strategic plan must contain the following:
1. Company or corporate mission
2. Objectives or goals
Company of corporate mission refers to the "strategic statement that identifies why an organization exists, its philosophy of management, and it's purpose as distinguished from other similar organizations in terms of products, services, and markets.
MAKING PLANNING EFFECTIVE
The planning barriers, according to Plunkett and after, are as follows:
1. Manager's inability to plan
2. Improper planning process
3. Lack of commitment to the planning process
4. Improper information
5. Focusing on the present at the expense of the future
6. Too much reliance on the planning department
7. Concentrating on only the controllable variables
Among the aids to planning that may be used are:
1. Gather as much information as possible
2. Develop multiple source of information
3. Involve others in the planning process
Technical activities like other activities, require effective planning, example if objectives and. goals ate to be realized.
A plan is a methodological way of achieving results.
Planning is undertaken at various management levels.
Various steps are required in the planning process depending on the managemt level.
Plans may be classified in terms of functional areas, time horizon, and frequency of use.
Plans consist of various parts that the engineer manager must be familiar with.
Plans can be made effective by recognizing the planning barriers and making use of aids to planning.
Hazel Ann Camus
Gianne Ver Jacinto
Planning is done so that some desired results may be achieved. At times, however, failure in planning occurs.
Planning may be made successful if the following are observed:
1. Recognize the planning barriers
2. Use of aids to planning