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Reading the Mind in the Eyes
Transcript of Reading the Mind in the Eyes
Allison Valenti Ethical Considerations Ecological Validity Type of Experiment & Dispositional Hypothesis Tests Used Results, Conclusions and Assumptions Process & Procedure Sides and Reasons "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" has ethical approval from Cambridge University. The researchers gained consent from all participants (online and on paper). The Ecological Validity is questionable. Some of the students were tested in a University lab, and the unusual setting could have had an effect on performance. The actual test is much easier, by means of determining mood, than having the skill in real life social situations. This was an experimental study because they wanted to see if their disabilities would effect their test performance.
High functioning adults with autism or Asperger Syndrome would be impaired on a theory of the mind test called "The Reading the Mind in the Eyes" task opposed to 'normal' adults with Tourettes Syndrome. They also wanted to find if females would succeed more than males. Control group of 50 people with no history of psychological disorder and normal intelligence (25 men and 25 women)
A self-selecting sample of 16 people with Asperger's Syndrome or High Functioning Autism (13 men and 3 females)
Another control group of 14 people with Tourettes Syndrome (8 men and 6 women) The Eyes Task: consisted of 25 slides with pictures of people's eyes (between the bridge of the nose and the eyebrows), people got to view each picture for 3 seconds then had to make a forced choice. They had to choose from two different mental states listed: some were basic and some were complex.
Basic Emotion Task: the participants were shown 6 pictures of full faces and asked to identify the 6 basic emotions shown-these tests had better results than the eyes task but showed which participants had general problems of spotting any emotions Adults with autism or Asperger syndrome had more problems completing the eye task than normal adults or those with Tourette syndrome.
Normal adult males were found to have more problems with the eye task than normal adult females.
During the strange stories task people with autism had more difficulty than those with Asperger syndrome whom made no mistakes.
As for the gender and emotional control tasks there were no differences between the groups. Baron-Cohen conducted the experiment to test the level of brain function in High Functioning Adults with Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Tourettes Syndrome In the study, they examined how reading someone's mind and emotional state through their eyes develops in adolescents
The study was investigating whether or not high functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome had difficulties with not having a theory of mind
The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test, also called the "Eyes Test", was developed for high functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome Background Information Test One:
http://www.cio.com/article/facial-expressions-test Links to Take the Test Yourself http://sgspsychology.webs.com/baroncohen.html
http://www.holah.co.uk/study-detail.php/slug=baroncohen Sources Theory of the mind- the ability to attribute mental states- beliefs, desires, intents, pretending, knowledge, etc.- to oneself and others and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions, that are different from one' own
Autism is characterized by six main characteristics:
1) Communication: lack in verbal and non-verbal communications, may be delayed, have trouble expressing and receiving information
2) Social participation: the have problems interacting with others, they have trouble relating to people, events, and activities, they lack in imaginative activities and restrict themselves in activities and interests
3) Developmental Rate- their mental, emotional and physical development is slower than normal children, some skills may develop faster than others
4) Sensory Processing- they normally have obsessive tendencies, their response and activity levels may go from high to low
5) Cognition- they may have abnormalities in thinking and processing and they may be slower than other children, they may have difficulties in abstract thinking, awareness, judgement, preservative thinking, and impaired ability to process symbolic information Terms and Definitions Asperger syndrome is a type of autism that describes people who are high functioning. Their characteristics are:
fewer problems with language- they often speak fluently, but their words can sometimes sound unnatural or formal Terms and Definitions continued The Strange Stories Test: Sarah and Tom are going on a picnic. It is Tom's idea, he says it is going to be a lovely, sunny day for a picnic. But just as they are unpacking the food, it starts to rain, and soon they are both soaked to the skin. Sarah is cross. She says, "Oh yes, a lovely day for a picnic alright!"
Is it true, what Sarah says?
Why does she say this?
The Gender Recognition Task: participants were asked to identify a person as male or female based on their eyes in the Eyes Task
The Sally-Anne Test: A child is presented with two dolls-Sally and Anne-, a marble, a box, and a basket. Sally puts the marble in her basket and leaves the room. Anne then moves the marble from the basket to her box. Sally returns to the room and the child is asked "where will Sally look for the marble?" Tests Used The independent variable was the group the participant belonged to
the dependent variable was the score the received on the tests.
The participants then took the Eyes Task, the Basic Emotion Task, the Gender Recognition Task, and the Strange Story Task.
Children took the Sally-Anne Task. Process and Procedure