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Heterochromia (Iridius & Iridium)

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Sarah Panek

on 8 February 2015

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Transcript of Heterochromia (Iridius & Iridium)

Age of Onset & Symptoms
What is Heterochromia?
Genetic Causes
Treatment
Lifestyle Changes & Life Expectancy
Fun Facts
Celebrities
The Different Types of Heterochromia
"Heterochromia
- A difference in coloration in two structures or two parts of the same structure that are normally alike in color."
Heterochromia:
Genetic mutation, or beautiful flaw?
By Sarah Panek and Kimberly Bailey
Heterochromia Iridius
- only ONE affected eye
Heterochromia Iridium
- Both eyes are affected
Age of onset depends on whether it is genetic or caused by something else.
Heterochromia is asymptomatic (except for the change in eye color), but if it is caused by a disease, symptoms of the agent condition may be present.
There are three different types of Heterochromia:

central, sectoral, and complete.
Melanocytes
Melanocytes are cells that produce pigments, which produce color.
In eyes, the amount of pigment produced by the melanocytes determines the color of the eye.
Chimerism
This occurs when fraternal twins (two separate fertilized eggs) fuse together.
If the two eggs had different eye color genes, the resulting fetus will have two different colored eyes.
With Heterochromia, the person with it does not experience dramatic lifestyle changes, unless they had acquired it through a physical injury or a genetic disease.
Mosaicism
OCA2 Gene- The key gene in determining eye color
Different versions produce different amounts of pigments, and ultimately determine eye color.
This occurs when a gene mutates early in the development of a person.
All of the cells that develop from the mutated cell have slightly different genes from the rest of the body.
Other Genetic Diseases
Heterochromia can also be caused by an underlying genetic condition.
Waardenburg Syndrome
Caused by a mutation in the genes EDN3, EDNRB, MITF, PAX3, SNAI2, and SOX10.
The mutations cause melanocytes to get lost during development.
The missing melanocytes can cause discoloration in the eyes (heterochromia), hair, or skin.
Other Causes
A foreign material (usually containing iron) in the blood can cause the iris to look darker
Some eye drops can stimulate production in the melanocytes, create an abundance of pigment
Trauma to the eye can cause darkening or lightening of the iris
Many affected people choose to wear colored contacts.
The more drastic route some people take is getting an iris transplant.
*Even though Heterochromia isn't life threatening, the condition causing it may be*
Central Heterochromia
Central Heterochromia is when there appears to be a ring of color that is not a person's true eye color around the pupil.
Sectoral Heterochromia
Sectoral Heterochromia is when there is a patch of color(s) in one area of the iris.
Complete Heterochromia
Complete Heterochromia is when both eyes are two completely different colors, like when one is hazel and the other is blue.
Complete Heterochromia is mostly found in animals other than humans, mainly huskies.
Heterochromia itself does not affect a person's lifespan, but the condition causing it might.
Hes also pretty hot
ok bai sarah
Works Cited
Many celebrities have Heterochromia.
Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict is known for playing Sherlock in BBC's
Sherlock
, as well as voicing Smaug in
The Hobbit
trilogy.
He has sectoral heterochromia; both eyes are blue with patches of green.
Mila Kunis
Mila is known for her role in Black Swan and for voicing Meg Griffin on Family Guy.
Mila has central heterochromia; her eyes are green with a brown ring around the pupil.
Rihanna
Rihanna is known mostly for her work in the music industry.
She has central heterochromia; her eyes are hazel and she has an orange ring around her pupil.
Kiefer Sutherland
Kiefer Sutherland is known for his role in Fox's
24
.
He has sectoral heterochromia; both of his eyes are blue and green.
Mikey Way
Mikey is most known for playing bass guitar for My Chemical Romance.
He has sectoral heterochromia; in his right ye, there is a patch of brown in his otherwise green iris.
Alizadeh , Azita . "Eye Color." Understanding Genetics. The Tech Museum of Innovation , 28 Jun. 2007. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask226>.

Berube, Margery S., ed. "heterochromia." Stedman's Medical Dictionary. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995. Print.

Dahl, Andrew. "Heterochromia Iridis Symptoms, Causes, Treatment." MedicineNet. MedicineNet, Inc., 5 May. 2013. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://www.medicinenet.com/heterochromia_iridis/page2.htm>.

Johnson, Amy. "Eye Color." Understanding Genetics. The Tech Museum of Innovation, 8 May. 2012. Web. 17 Apr. 2014. <http://genetics.thetech.org/ask-a-geneticist/inheritance-heterochromia>.

"Waardenburg Syndrome – Pictures, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment." SyndromesPedia. N.p., 15 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. <http://syndromespedia.com/waardenburg-syndrome-pictures-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html>.

Less than 200,000 people in the U.S.A. are affected by Heterochromia, and it is considered a rare disease by the Office of Rare Diseases.
Even though the condition is rare in humans, it is very common in animals such as cats and dogs.
"Different Colored Eyes Day" is celebrated on July 12th; the flower of the day is the oriental red poppy, and the food of the day is Jello Cake.
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