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Transcript of Art
Art by Shawn, Bradley & Cyndi
Essak S. n.d, About art history romanticism, Accessed January 2014
Galitz K.C. 2004, Romanticism , Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accessed January 2014
Thallasinos S 2013, Masters of Art: Caspar David Friedrich, make your ideas art. Accessed January 2014.
The Wanderer above the sea fog, n.d, Photograph viewed January 2014. < http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/caspar-david-friedrich/the-wanderer-above-the-sea-of-fog>
As the course of history changed, the content and subject matter of art has changed. This has been observed through the renaissance, romantic and modern art periods to name a few. The changes are fueled by not only the desire to create something new and different but also the social and political impacts that drive artists to push the boundaries of the excepted norms (Jirousek,1995). From new developments in technology to social impacts, the basic essence of what art is will always endure now and into the future.
"art: the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power" (Oxford Dictionary 2014)
There is no defining moment when art began, but it is widely agreed that it's original purpose was a story telling one( MoMA 2014). There is not a designated moment when the various periods through out the history of art change from one to the next. They are extended periods of time that gently roll and merge into the next, it's only upon reflection that the era's become more apparent. This is a small journey through time that touches on a few eras of art.
The Modern Art era is said to cover the period from the 1860's-1970's. This era of art took the characteristics of the time from traditional to quite abstract in style. The primary medium of the time remained oil paint on canvas. It was at this stage that artists broke with tradition in colour, style and technique, to create what was referred to as art for the modern age (Wikipedia 2013). Life had changed in so many ways in this era. Technology was racing forward and it had altered the way people lived their daily lives, from work to transport. Modern art reflected exactly this (MoMa2014).Under the banner of Modern Art comes many different movements, or styles. One of the better known movements of the era was Cubism, it is well noted that Cubism's original explorers were Pablo Picasso and George Braque around 1908-12. This style took images and broke them down into geometric shapes and then reorganised them on the canvas (Levy.E 2010). The perfect example being Three Musicians, Pablo Picasso (1921). Another significant movement of this time was Impressionism, a famous impressionist piece is Cafe Terrance at Night by Vincent Van Gogh (1888). The comparison of the two styles is both extremely modern, yet technically very different .
Wikipedia 2013, Modern Art ,Accessed January 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/modern_art>
MoMA 2014,What is Modern Art, Museum of Modern Art, Accessed January 2014. <http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/what-is-modern-art>
Levy E. 2010, What is Modern Art, Accessed January2014. < http://www.whyzz.com/what-is-modern-art>
Three Musicians, n.d, photo viewed January2014. <http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/three_musicians>
Cafe Terrace at Night, n.d, photo viewed January 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/cafe_terrace_at_night>
Romanticism is a movement that was said to have spawned around the year 1800 in England and France. Starting as merely criticism in literature surrounding the overall disillusionment with values and order in the wake of the French revolution .This literary expression evolved into an artistic movement (Galitz 2004).
Romantic art encompassed a number of various mediums, however oils and water paints tended to dominate as the preferred medium of the era. The romantic style is difficult to define and has only been explained as an expression of glorified ideas (Esaak n.d.).
An influential artist during the romantic period was Casper David Freidrich. He is well known for his landscape pieces and focus on nature to create a subjective appeal (Thallasinos 2013). One of his defining pieces while not landscape in itself was The Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog (1818), which illustrates the essence of art from that period. Painting with an emphasis on the natural world was not conventional prior to the romantic era. Romanticism has been cited as a key influence on the modern art sub-genre of impressionism. The painting styles of the romantic period are still very popular today (Esaak n.d.).
Three Musician, Pablo Picasso ( 1921 )
Cafe Terrace at Night, Vincent Van Gogh ( 1888)
Oxford Dictionary, 2014. Art, Accessed January 2014. <http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/art>
Google Images, n.d. Modern Art images, Accessed 22 January 2014.<https://www.google.com.au/search?q+modern+art&client=firefox-a&hs=UJz&rls=org.mozilla:en->
MoMA, 2014. What is Modern Art? Museum of Modern Art, Accessed 23 January 2014. <http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/what-is-modern-art>
Jirousek C, 1995. The Nature of Changes In the Fine Arts, Accessed 22 January 2014, <http://char.txa.cornell.edu/art/fineart/change/change.htm>
Metzger, M 2007, 'Making sense of credibility on the web: models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research', Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, vol.58, no.13, pp.2078-2091, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 25 Janurary 2014
The process of evaluating the various sources used in this presentation were based on a checklist created to ensure the information being presented is credible and comes from a reliable source based on (Metzger 2007).
Renaissance: Numerous websites and journals were researched and cross referenced against reputable sources for full traceability back to the source using their own process of elimination. The authors are well known in their respective fields and no history of a bias opinion on the aforementioned subjects. All information stated inside the journals and the sub topic of Renaissance was clearly referenced and cited using the Harvard style.
Romanticism: The websites used stand credible in a number of ways. The Museum of Metropolitan Art's official website holds credibility as it is maintained by qualified authors. About.com andMakeyourideasart.com are both educational sites that were deemed credible through cross referencing topics and backing references.
Modern Art: The websites have been justified as credible based on two methods. The Museum of Modern Art’s official web sites is for educational purposes, and was updated recently. Information from Whyzz.com is directly referenced from Encyclopedia Britannica which is credible and has no known history of bias in its opinions. All information collected for this topic was cross-referenced to validate its accuracy.
Justification of Sources
The Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, Casper David Freidrich (1818)
Google Images, n.d.
“The Renaissance was a cultural revolution that spread from Florence, in 1400, throughout Italy and into the rest of Europe” (Haughton, 2004)
Renaissance literally translates from French to ‘Rebirth’ in reference to the fact that this period marked a revival of interest in classical learning and values traditionally seen in Ancient Greece and Rome.
Renaissance art was heavily influenced by anatomy, new knowledge and speculation began to emerge about the function of the human body, replacing ancient religious and philosophical dogma. (Paluzzi, Belli & Viva, 2007).
This led to an increase in lifelike sculptures. One of the most prominent artists in this style was Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, simply known by his first name as Michaelangelo.
One of his most prominent works regarding sculpture was the statue David (1504) which was commissioned in 1501 by the Guild of Wool Merchants when Michaelangelo was only 26 years of age. It stands as testament to Michaelangelo’s mastery of capturing the human form in marble, so lifelike and accurate were Michaelangelo’s works that they were used as reference for centuries to come. (Shaikh, Leonard-Amodeo 2005)
The Renaissance period is marked to have ended late in the 16th century and it is seen as one of the most culturally significant periods in art, as well as in general to date.
Haughton, N.H, 2004. Perceptions of beauty in Renaissance art. Journal of cosmetic dermetology. Vol. 3, p229-233. Available at: http://sirl.stanford.edu/~bob/teaching/pdf/arth202/Haughton_Renaissance_beauty_JCosmeticDermatology04.pdf ,Accessed 19 January 2014.
Paluzzi, Belli, Viva, A.P, A.B, L.V, 2007. Brain Imaging in the Renaissance. Journal of the royal society of medicine, Vol. 12, p540-543. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2121627/ Accessed 20 January 2014.
Shaikh, Leonard-Amodeo, S.S, J.L-A, 2005. The deviating eyes of Michelangelo’s David. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Vol. 2, p75-76. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1079389/Accessed 22 January 2014.
Michaelangelo's David, n.d. Photograph viewed 24/1/2014. Available at: http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/David_by_michelangelo.html
David, Michaelangelo (1504)