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Jane Eyre

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Christine Mhin

on 14 December 2013

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Transcript of Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre
view of limited few

1) sees everything from J.E's POV
2) when J.E. moves to places she doesn't know/meets unfamiliar things -> view limited
ex) road to Lowood
- "lifted out": passive, not really involved in process of moving
-"like a servant": anonymous because it is beyond her interest

People shown as part of Lowood
- Scatcherd: no claim of individuality
- Miss T: walks out of story and doesn't return
-> works only as a narrative instrument and has no life of their own
Great Expectations
view of many different ppl
world of multiplicity
(many different characters)
doesn't leave anything out
sense of presence
-smell, expression, manner, habit of movement/speech of each character is described
-> for more detailed, concrete world
-> when meeting new characters, solid of manners etc. is given and they seem irreplaceable

reason
social determinism
-singular, distinct characters and places
-individuality: determined by how we occupy space and kinship and place you stay
shown by
-interaction with space
-habit formed and memories
concrete realization
-no one else has done it
:singular imagination
-> ppl feel as if they are living in a world of great realism
Jane Eyre (character)
romantic imagination
-not socially acceptable to go out
<- attunes with extra sensibility
- precocious, ideal type
Pip
orphan
hostile
circumstances
need to work hard
to make human self-hood
concerned about how
different society will receive them
as they move along
-> accepts reality as it is
not very romantic
separates Pip and J.E.
-doesn't look for a world to replace this one (a not so good world)
confused at places where she doesn't know how to deal with people
very curious + highly imaginative
-> draws him to
1) things that are not immediately knowable
2) bewildering dimensions of human nature
network of human relationships
-even ones that seem petty
- constantly meets new people
(some remain/disappear)
-> everyone is important to Pip
-interesting individuality that Pip doesn't forget: smell, texture, look, speech
-> characterization of main/minor characters make his novel interesting
Pip as narrator
Dickens' understanding of modern world
different from world of tradition and continuity
-industrial, modern, urban
intro)
time of abrupt change: train- mobility
things incomprehensible with inherited values
-> way to account for that world

- bound to convey a sense of shock, puzzlement and wonder

-> requires a different type of story telling
world not knowable by
1) conventional knowledge of inherited value
2) inherited measures of understanding
Dickens' experience of
London
center stage of dramatic development of Pip
fueled by Pip's curiosity
acute perception
capture all details, popular culture, sense of urban wealth and sophistication
sense of change
realistic depiction
Part 1: introducing narrator
fictional autobiography
retrospective narrative
very moment of beginning
his birth
-name
-family:dead and buried
-in the cemetery, examining tombstones + imagining how his parents might have looked like
day of confrontation with convict
Pip not at home
-typical for Pip
-always goes out of domain
-> meet new people...
only by leaving home, can he truly meet a different world
-> starts with the world outside his home
wilderness beyond the churchyard, intersected with dikes and mounds and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it, was the marshes; and that the low leaden line beyond was the river; and that the distant savage lair from which the wind was rushing was the sea; and that the small bundle of shivers growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry, was Pip. (4)
gibbet (8)
-> Pip feels as if it is a threatening object
that looms over his existence
-> trying to show: scared child's confrontation with the hostile universe
-layered into the sense of FEAR Pip feels
-images of execution, GUILT
Nature
J.E.
-when isolated, nature gives solace, accommodation
-> nature as a place of spiritual restoration
-> keen sense of romantic things
Dickens
-hostile, uninviting
ex) marshes




- alienating, no sense of reciprocation, affirmation
The marshes were just a long black horizontal line then, as I stopped to look after him; and the river was just another horizontal line, not nearly so broad nor yet so black; and the sky was just a row of long angry red lines and dense black lines intermixed. (7)
FEAR and TERROR
-apprehensive of possible outcome
<- often severely treated by his sister
IDEA OF FEAR continues
GUILT
If I slept at all that night, it was only to imagine myself drifting down the river on a strong spring-tide, to the Hulks; a ghostly pirate calling out to me through a speaking-trumpet, as I passed the gibbet-station, that I had better come ashore and be hanged there at once, and not put it off. I was afraid to sleep, even if I had been inclined, for I
knew that at the first faint dawn of morning I must rob the pantry
. There was no doing it in the night (17)
-description of a dream
->
GUILTY
of what he is about to do (Rob his sister)
fear of execution
The mist was heavier yet when I got out upon the marshes, so that instead of my running at everything, everything seemed to run at me. This was very disagreeable to a
guilty mind.
The gates and dikes and banks came bursting at me through the mist, as if they cried as plainly as could be, "
A boy with Somebody's else's pork pie! Stop him!"
(19)
-> general sense of FEAR dominate opening pages
-> character as a vehicle for
realistic portrayal
of the world
Fear = temporary state of mind
-continues even in London, as he is trying to become a gentleman
why is it so dominant
in his internal landscape?
1) need for recognition from others
desperate need of recognition from other people is shown through fear
2) equally afraid of other people
other people = source of both social approval and terror
TERROR
-comes from other's refusal to recognize his identity and humanity and consider him as something beneath human
unspecific, abstract
-becomes an object of conversation
-treated as a potential convict
I was always treated as if I had insisted on being born in opposition to the dictates of reason, religion, and morality, and against the dissuading arguments of my best friends.
Even when I was taken to have a new suit of clothes, the tailor had orders to make them like a kind of
Reformatory
, and on no account to let me have the
free use of my limbs.
(27)
guilty of being born against reasons of society + confinement of both body and soul

modern society
fearful of presence of policing
-intrusion of party is taken as part of everyday life
- ensure safety of people living in society
-> better be on best behavior at all time or it means trouble
-> may end up in jail like common criminal
--> effects self identity
legal system, punishment, execution
-part of modern England's administrative modernization
overwhelming sense
of threat defines Pip
-imagination that challenge intimidation/threat
: humanity is robbed -> Pip claims his own individuality by making something out of nothing by using his imagination
unreasonably derived from their tombstones. The shape of the letters on my father's, gave me an odd idea that he was a square, stout, dark man, with curly black hair. From the character and turn of the inscription, "Also Georgiana Wife of the Above," I drew a childish conclusion that my mother was freckled and sickly. (3)
using imagination to recover
1) lonely and abandoned + doesn't stay resigned to alienation
-> interesting association
-indelible (잊을 수 없는) mark/signature of character
2) uses imagination to come up with animating faces out of nothing
-nothing is more negative than death (tombstones...)
- resilient & versatile imagination that comes from archetype of life (wanting to live)

: endure sense of being no matter how bad/unfortunate he becomes, he'll use his imagination to recover
"growing afraid of it all" : key word
fear = essential
feels like he's surrounded by absolute hostility?
treated as he is no good including family (except Joe)
It began the moment we sat down to dinner. Mr. Wopsle said grace with theatrical declamation,--as it now appears to me, something like a religious cross of the Ghost in Hamlet with Richard the Third,--and ended with the very proper aspiration that we might be truly grateful. Upon which my sister fixed me with her eye, and said, in a low reproachful voice, "Do you hear that? Be grateful."
"Especially," said Mr. Pumblechook, "be grateful, boy, to them which brought you up by hand."
Mrs. Hubble shook her head, and contemplating me with a mournful presentiment that I should come to no good, asked, "Why is it that the young are never grateful?" This moral mystery seemed too much for the company until Mr. Hubble tersely solved it by saying, "
Naterally wicious
." Everybody then murmured "True!" and looked at me in a particularly unpleasant and personal manner. (29-30)
as in "naterally wicious" boy, we can see that people can treat somebody as a potential criminal justifying Pip's reason to be scared of people.
By doing so, their humanity is ignored and they are considered below human.
- could be exploited, manipulated, and poked fun at
afraid of other people in general
J.E.'s sensitivity to other people's gazes
similar in some aspects to
BUT, this sense of fear has social, political connection as well
-"otherness" climaxes: absolute terror of police
-> in face of police and air of surveillance, terrorize the rest
modernization in all asepects
administration: Police
-1850s~60s: police = pervasive, ubiquitous
-fear: entangled with social


1)metaphysical (nature, family are all against him)
2)not only is it part of Pip's self-awareness
but it is also about what's happening to modern individuals as well
-system of judiciary, punishment...
self-identity: making of self-hood of narrator
Fear at London
-becomes more pronounced
because it is in vicinity of place that punishes/executed ppl
(prison, jail...)
- London = site of grandeur, hospitality
London
noble... <-> punishment, grimy...
legal means of social order = terrifying for Pip
Pip is constantly shaped by otherness of other people
- clothes: uncomfortable -> no free use of limbs

a symbolic jail -> Pip is treated as a prisoner
Satis House
Marshes
-aspiration, becomes more conscious about being impoverished (common, coarse)
1) 1st experience of different world
- a place of hierarchy where Pip is considered low
-> 1st taste of how society operates

-threat to turn everything into nothing
Miss Havisham
J.E.: psychological, subjective realism
C.D.: observe as realistically as possible

-principal behind characterization: environmental determinism
-is she realistic?
-why did she become that way?

fixated on her wedding day
reason: humiliated by groom(swindler) who abandoned her at the alter
effect:
hates men
has will of vengeance
reason why she is fixated on that day
-relieve the day
-decaying objects: cake, dress...
has to relive that day -> refuses temporariness of change
refuses to compromise/believe common wisdom of healing (time heals) and social interaction (it can help!)
-not guided by friendship, social participation...
-compulsive logic of repetition
-> doesn't want to forget how traumatized she was
and uses it as engine of retaliation
-spiritual stagnation due to the fact that she doesn't accept the passage of time (like living dead)
-Gothic?
like in J.E, where Gothic elements were used to tell about reality, C.D. uses it in the same way as well

-gain strength by connecting with family...
<-> macabre, bizarre characters that turned against the
wisdom of society
-emphasis on social interaction as the bases of human society
very social, outgoing...
humorous, vivacious, tapped into energy of London

ex) Wemmick
Miss Havisham: confined
why does she attract/fascinate Pip?
Pip announces he wants to be a gentleman to Biddy

(gentleman=social distinction)
-why not a Gatsby-like person?
-problematic that Pip becomes like Miss Havisham
but I felt convinced that Miss Havisham too would not be understood; and although she was perfectly incomprehensible to me, I entertained an impression that there would be something coarse and treacherous in my dragging her as she really was (to say nothing of Miss Estella) before the contemplation of Mrs. Joe. Consequently, I said as little as I could, and had my face shoved against the kitchen wall. (76)
-He feels a sense of connection, even if he doesn't understand her
-should not become a topic of discussion among common people -> his mind is already with Miss Havisham
-He shares a secret with Miss Havisham, a twisted but still a part of the noble society
absolute mastery
a person of active power
a house is controlled by person of absolute mastery
money
wealth
possible
stay in "that day"
-doesn't need to go out and earn money(living)
-everything can be done if she wills it: time to stand still (God-like)
Pip
vulnerable + weak, insecure: never knows what will happen next
(as can be seen from 1st meeting with convict)
-> precariousness of future
knows full well about the future: nothing will happen
Pip maybe after such power
-for security: knows what'll happen
-control objects... even people (Estella to break people's hearts, Pip to play for me)
1st recognition of different world of absolute authority
-> how to reach that world?
industrialization makes it harder for people to interact with each other
-> this could lead to disastrous consequences
: Estella and Miss Havisham
2 purposes:
1) realistic representation of modern England
2) meditation of communication
- robbing people of chance to talk
-> machine-like entity
Gentleman
-reach world of aristocracy by using money?
-what does money do to society?
how do a person become a gentleman/aristocrat/noble?
why not a businessman?
gentleman: clinging to special aspects of old views
-sign of social prestige
-can't earn but comes through title (family connections)
-"born into"
is it possible to become a
gentleman
by using
money
?
sense of permanence
-inherent in title
fluctuation of value
-equivalent to fluctuation of change in value
everything that is solid melts into air - K.Marx
if it is possible, then even the idea of gentleman can be fluctuated
-money can buy manners, teachers.. -> everyone can become one by using money as a tool of social change
Pip clings to antiquated term gentleman
- trying to reach that prestige (=outdated)
however, the fact that this is outdated becomes clear as Pip meets people in London
-> gentlemen are becoming extinct,and is being replaced by bourgeois- hardworking, earned money: new sense of priority
-> at first, Pip's role model is not hard working people but outdated ideas
however, later on, it changes to hard working people
-individual growth
-disillusionment of ambition to become gentleman
people's change in attitude
yes: Mr. Trabb
no: Trabb's boy
-suspicion of intrinsic quality of gentleman
: money eliminates inherent value of gentleman->
no claim for respect

-> lived in world enough to learn the meaning of capitalism
-> sardonic laugh
Advocate of prison reform
19c Europe
Les Miserables & Great Expectations
-brutal society-> criminals treated unjustly
ownership of gentleman
is more valuable than owning land, stock to Magwitch

Magwitch
why does Magwitch decide to support Pip?
is there a reason behind act of charity?

-M's reason for working hard: to support P become a gentleman
-He knows that society is hostile, brutal to the unfortunate, underprivileged people

realistic treatment of characters
-habits, mannerism, everyday life
-very serious, realistic motif
realistic depiction of characters
society

change-> conflict
one way to adapt to such change
for Magwitch
ownership of gentleman: great value at this time of society where everything is changing
-needs to either become a gentleman or own one
-why a gentleman? access to social prestige
everything is exchangeable: money=key medium, index to values that changes
If I could have kept him away by paying money, I certainly would have paid money. My greatest reassurance was that he was coming to Barnard's Inn, not to Hammersmith, and consequently would not fall in Bentley Drummle's way. I had little objection to his being seen by Herbert or his father, for both of whom I had a respect; but I had the sharpest sensitiveness as to his being seen by Drummle, whom I held in contempt. (252)

Joe looked at me for a single instant with something faintly like reproach. (257)
Pip is afraid of disapproval from both
1) Joe
2) new friends
Previous and new life can collide
-> gradual process of disillusionment, but Pip pushes on with the mission of becoming a gentleman
sustains sense of self-hood by unchanging, being permanent
Pip believes his newly earned social status (gentleman) can not change through any criticism, social turbulence
But!
it is just as precarious any other thing
-has no inherent value
-any one can become one (merchandise)

-> Pip wants to remove accidental nature of social gain

social mobility
1) by learning codes of social behavior
-how to eat, talk, dance...
-gain entry to society that was unapproachable + people of titles and ranks

2) trying to make sure the social stigma of an orphan boy doesn't stick
-no contact with old friends...
wants to justify that his inheritance was not accidental but a
rightful reward
-claim as natural birth right
"Don't know yah!" Words cannot state the amount of aggravation and injury wreaked upon me by Trabb's boy, when passing abreast of me, he pulled up his shirt-collar, twined his side-hair, stuck an arm akimbo, and smirked extravagantly by, wriggling his elbows and body, and drawling to his attendants, "Don't know yah, don't know yah, 'pon my soul don't know yah!" (283)
Pip wants to check how people would recieve him now that he is a gentleman (in 281)
It was interesting to be in the quiet old town once more, and it was not disagreeable to be here and there suddenly recognized and stared after. One or two of the tradespeople even darted out of their shops and went a little way down the street before me, that they might turn, as if they had forgotten something, and pass me face to face,--on which occasions I don't know whether they or I made the worse pretence; they of not doing it, or I of not seeing it. (281)
minor characters such as Trabb's boy used to reject this idea.

social awkwardness
It was interesting to be in the quiet old town once more, and it was not disagreeable to be here and there suddenly recognized and stared after. One or two of the tradespeople even darted out of their shops and went a little way down the street before me, that they might turn, as if they had forgotten something, and pass me face to face,--on which occasions I don't know whether they or I made the worse pretence; they of not doing it, or I of not seeing it. (281)
-invisible barrier(social class) between him and them
-townspeople: doesn't know how to greet him
-Pip likes the kind of authority <- "distinguished one"
poking fun at Pip
suddenly the knees of Trabb's boy smote together, his hair uprose, his cap fell off, he trembled violently in every limb, staggered out into the road, and crying to the populace, "Hold me! I'm so frightened!" feigned to be in a paroxysm of terror and contrition, occasioned by the dignity of my appearance. As I passed him, his teeth loudly chattered in his head, and with every mark of extreme humiliation, he prostrated himself in the dust. (282)
-exaggerating the show of honor that a commoner would show to a gentleman -> act of comedy

then acts as if he is a gentleman
I had not got as much further down the street as the post-office, when I again beheld Trabb's boy shooting round by a back way. This time, he was entirely changed. He wore the blue bag in the manner of my great-coat, and was strutting along the pavement towards me on the opposite side of the street, attended by a company of delighted young friends to whom he from time to time exclaimed, with a wave of his hand, "Don't know yah!" Words cannot state the amount of aggravation and injury wreaked upon me by Trabb's boy (283)
-biting at how ridiculous the notion of gentleman is
-> anyone can be a gentleman

-attacking what hurts Pip most: vulnerability, unsure of new position
: because Pip is always unsure, ambivalent of it, he tries to overcome it by showing a new attitude at his old town, hoping to get people's approval
-> Trabb's boy's actions show that what Pip is doing is only illusive
The idea of fixed gentleman, that it would endure change
Pip
Magwitch
contagious?
-even more serious since he had more experience of society than Pip
- he believes the oly way to defeat social enemies & overcome difficulties is to become a gentleman
-> but since he is old & ex-convict he risks life to claim ownership of Pip
Miss Havisham
-has social malice because of how she was treated as well
center of London = prison
- beginning of part 2, ch.13
prison -> London
-> characterization of Pip
I consumed the whole time in thinking how strange it was that I should be encompassed by all this
taint of prison and crime
; that, in my childhood out on our lonely marshes on a winter evening,
I should have first encountered it (meeting Magwitch)
; that, it should have reappeared on two occasions, starting out like a stain that was faded but not gone; that, it should in this new way
pervade my fortune and advancement
. (302-303)
-prison is not an incidental part of Pip's life
1) his being brought together with Magwitch is not an accident
2) design in shaping Pip: sense of guilt and threat as he is forming his own self-hood
3) Pip is the blueprint of modern self-hood
reason:
1) trained to be afraid of things - system, principal of surveillance
police system: profession to keep an eye on people
people have every reason to fear the police
cf) Jane Eyre
-made aware of people looking
-J.E. hides herself from the gaze of surveillance
self-hood implicated in modern society
-complies with society's demands
-mindful of what people have to say about you
-becomes a passion
-sense of security guaranteed + apprehensive all the time
-> acts as if somebody is watching you
-> system of surveillance internalized
taint of prison and crime
Pip: when his life is going great, he meets this
-trying to catch up with him as if it's trying to eat him up?

1) why does he go to the prison in the first place?
-gravitate towards it



2) you become your own sensor
3) system: if you're good, then you're ok, if your're not, then we'll come get you
cf) 카프카
-obsessed with justice system
-absolute compliance with modern pineal society
"I learned it(how to shape modern self-hood) from Dickens"
Part 2 is sandwiched between 2 Newgate
all characters are important
-constant, busy trafficking between different classes
-how people interact across class boundaries
-even if there are awkward moments, people encourage themselves to go out

when people are brought together -> conflict
ex) Pip: I'm a gentleman, respect me
Trabb's boy: repudiate
why is Orlick and Trabb's boy malicious?
"why not me?"
-envious, jealous
-> unleashed by capitalism
both can identify with Pip
-aggravated by the unreasonable path of social mobility that Pip goes through
-> envy that poisons self
-> unthinkable acts possible
Mr. Jaggers' office
-confining, dismal, humble...
-contrasts with his "man of great authority" (God-like) status, affluent
-> eccentric depiction of Jagger's office
why the contrast? does it tell us anything about the general office environment? about Jaggers?
death mask
-Dickens was on the side of reformists
-(abolitionist) he wanted to get rid of the death penalty
- by 1840s, almost no one was executed (only murderers were hanged)
-public spectacle of death penalty

: its original purpose was to give a lesson of a great sense of warning, terror
but by the late 18c and early 19c, it became a form of entertainment (a place of joviality, possible anarchy)
-> death penalty as a form of entertainment is shown by Jagger's collecting death masks of executed criminals (exploitation of death penalty)

-> this was a warning to the people who disagreed with abolitionists
* G.E. was printed in the 1860s, when administrative reform was in full swing: how to modernize prison system
Prison as a site of rehabilitation
At that time jails were much neglected, and the period of exaggerated reaction consequent on all public wrongdoing--and which is always its heaviest and longest punishment--was still far off. (298)
1)when G.E. was published, it was the time of prison reform-> had to wait another decade or so
-everything else is contemporaneous (up to date)
-but for the scenes with prisons, he sets the date prior to prison reform to show how prisons offer images of administrative neglect (object of exploitation)
2) prison of early 19c.
-> in mid 19c, prison reform gained attention

-> mixture of different sensibilities, historical facts
Historical facts
ex) Wemmick: contemporary
- London(England) becoming instrumentalized
time set before Prison reform
- prison= site of great
disorder
, confusion,
lawlessness

-> the feeling of "stained" echoes with the sense of neglect
criminal justice, prison system
old system=site of inhumanity

-reformists should find it more necessary to go ahead with own experiments, ideas...
-> fuel reformists' idea of prison
old system=brutal, lawless
Pip: legalized terror
-outlines Pip's understanding of self identity, society
Jaggers' office = extension of prison
Jaggers' view of human: grim, death
-cases involve murder, robbery, smuggling
-death penalty
he always deals with these people
-guilty, punished -> can't trust people

"Put the case that he lived in an atmosphere of evil, and that all he saw of children was their being generated in great numbers for certain destruction. Put the case that he often saw children solemnly tried at a criminal bar, where they were held up to be seen; put the case that he habitually knew of their being imprisoned, whipped, transported, neglected, cast out,
qualified in all ways for the hangman, and growing up to be hanged
. Put the case that pretty nigh all the children he saw in his daily business life he had reason to look upon as so much spawn, to develop into the fish that were to come to his net,--to be prosecuted, defended, forsworn, made orphans, bedevilled somehow." (472)
he talks of himself as if he's talking of someone else
-opinion on humanity is grim, he thinks it has no sense of positive nature/redemption
Jaggers stems from Dickens' gothic imagination (which started from the lawlessness of prison system before the modernization of prison)

Dickens opposes "no hope of generosity, kindness.." by taking a different approach to criminals
-Magwitch: others may find irredeemable; must be removed from society
<-> generous, kind, reciprocation with society with such feelings + may regain moral capacity as he did
justice as an object of entertainment
-drunk minister of justice
exceedingly dirty and partially drunk minister of justice asked me if I would like to step in and hear a trial or so: informing me that he could give me a front place for
half a crown
, whence I should command a full view of the Lord Chief Justice in his wig and robes,--mentioning that awful personage like waxwork, and presently offering him at the reduced price of
eighteen-pence
. (192)
London=extension of prison yard
"
four on 'em" would come out at that door the day after to-morrow at eight in the morning, to be killed in a row
. This was horrible, and gave me
a sickening idea of London
(192)
-these types of problems were what people were trying to solve by modernizing prison
-Dickens was at the center of this movement

prison -> train -> give another chance -> lawful members of society

-> regain moral capacity
kill/punish them -> change prison -> great discipline, regulation
-> slowly adjust/change them-> able to become different individuals
environmental determinism
if they became bad because they grew up in a bad environment, then we can change them by giving them a good environment while they are in jail
prison: place of entertainment -> place of learning
certain criminals like Magwitch will become good again with rehabilitation,some are beyond redemption -> needs to be done away with
he didn't believe people were born good and that they were all going to be good
How people in London survive in harsh conditions
Wemmick
division between office and home
strict with himself in distinguishing between the two
-shows urban society that became mechanical
-certain role in different spaces: people were expected to perform different roles
-> compartmentalized (knows which side he needs to perform)

ex) Wemmick:
work-his human side is irrelevant as a law clerk, has to be strict and functional
Walworth- friendly, gentle, warm hearted

"got dryer and harder": robot-like, only considered about maximal level of social function

By degrees, Wemmick
got dryer and harder
as we went along, and his mouth tightened into a post-office again.
At last, when we got to his place of business and he pulled out his key from his coat-collar, he looked as unconscious of his Walworth property as if the
Castle and the drawbridge and the arbor and the lake and the fountain and the Aged
, had all been blown into space together by the last discharge of the
Stinger
. (242)
- castle, drawbridge, ..., Aged: represents privacy
- stinger: reference to cannon in Walworth
Wemmick at Walworth
1) Wemmick's house was a little wooden cottage in the midst of plots of garden, and the top of it was cut out and painted like a battery mounted with guns.
"My own doing," said Wemmick. "Looks pretty; don't it?"
I highly commended it, I think it was the smallest house I ever saw; with the queerest gothic windows (by far the greater part of them sham), and a gothic door almost too small to get in at. (238)

2)
"if you can suppose the little place besieged, it would hold out a devil of a time in point of provisions."

3) "I am my own engineer, and my own carpenter, and my own plumber, and my own gardener, and my own Jack of all Trades," said Wemmick, in acknowledging my compliments. "Well; it's a good thing, you know. It brushes the Newgate cobwebs away, and pleases the Aged. (239)
-miniature fortress with a drawbridge, cannon -> protected at all cost
-why does it resemble a fortress + why is he so proud?
1) fortification-> military like attitude-> protect his privacy like the army(always ready to defend against attack)
2) last line of defense to protect sense of humanity and relationship with loved ones/friends
3) pride in managing house -> sense of autonomy in part of life

+ Pip finds the "not so intimidating look of Walworth" laughable until he finds that Wemmick is serious
-> frantic desperation to protect from world of corruption, contamination
-> possible for anyone to invade, but Wemmick still wants to cling to idea of house as fortification and his being a resourceful and autonomous person, not just a machine
-> shows how people in London survive with a frantic desperation to protect little sense of humanity that is little left because of mechanical ways that everyone is forced to act in
-> comical but pitiful because they try so hard to maintain little sense of kinship left with people

-warm, resourceful, autonomous individual
-society: everyone is reduced to an instrument
-> people hold onto autonomy apart from work
+ people are obsessed with private life because that's the only place where autonomy remains and their resourcefulness is shown
similar to
Miss Havisham's fear of social contact
separates her private sphere from the public sphere
-no outside influence can come into Satis House
-> no interaction with people
-autonomy, resourcefulness that is broken if it is exposed to ills of society
-London = prison,so by doing so, she can get away from contaminating source
House=reflection of different personalities
1) secret reservoir of person
2) world different from outside world
3) "It brushes the Newgate cobwebs away, and pleases the Aged." (239)
4) society of strange, different lifestyles

-> until you have seen all parts of that person, you can't judge them
It struck me that Wemmick walked among the prisoners much as a gardener might walk among his plants. (239)
-> generous enough to go to prison and try to solve problems but still this is not personal
- image of gardener: control
"portable" property?
-mobile character
-society with legal structure that allows surveillance
-> undermine self-reliance, autonomy
:Wemmick uses to counter negative forces from society
-> able to move without detection
Wemmick's wedding
-part of his private life: doesn't want people to know he has this other side from the social, professional facade (efficient, mechanical)
->protects private spheres in "weird ways"

-invisible social forces endanger
his last shelter of privacy
-> deception is a premise for Wemmick
-> understands need to play different roles

-abandon/resume according to situation
-shows how desperate people are to survive
-everyone is struggling
Pip: still inexperienced
met people in superficial contexts
Finches of the Grove
-people who can afford luxury
-educated
looks w/
great curiosity
-because Wemmick has so many secrets and personalities, he is a constant puzzlement to Pip
Wemmick mastered strategy to live in society
hazardous to your own existence
-of deception
-> great joy in seeing these strategies work.
ex) no one knows about wedding, people only thinks of it as a walk

society requires such strategies in order to survive
Wemmick accepted much part as fact of life, then created another personality that is contradictory
cf) George Orwell - 1984 "double talk"
-ability to do opposite things/ hold opposite beliefs without any need to reconcile differences
Pip's wanting to become a gentleman
reasons
1) wants to obtain power
2) wants to obtain privilege
-> remain protected in society, genuine reciprocation

-> ironical idea but hoped to gain a sense of reliable human interaction and friendship
because he was treated as a little criminal when he was young
similar to J.E.
-yearns for something more ideal
in G.E., it is not as clearly elaborated because J.E. is an idealist while G.E. is a realist
meaning of being a gentleman?
The Finches of the Grove: the object of which institution I have never divined, if it were not that the members should dine expensively once a fortnight, to quarrel among themselves as much as possible after dinner, and to cause six waiters to get drunk on the stairs. (313)
Kent
-sense of relationship with society
-dehumanizig
London
-no society
-no relation at all (except Drummle)
Drummle's marriage with Estella
Estella
-constructed by Miss Havisham's need for revenge
-> no heart to reciprocate genuine love from Pip
-> choosing a husband is as insignificant as choosing a pencil to her
-> doesn't matter to her and chooses with a sense of great abandon
Downfall of Pip's great expectations
-starts with the revelation of Miss Havisham's secret
Estella
-object of Pip's desire, but is unsuitable, unobtainable
- artificial being without a human heart

cf) why does Pip still say I love you at the end?

worships what Miss Havisham stands for
-Estella = tool of highlighting eccentric grandeur (Miss Havisham has from having power over people)
even after disillusionment, Pip still has connection with Estella
From Estella she looked at me, with a searching glance that seemed to pry into my heart and probe its wounds. "
How does she use you, Pip; how does she use you?
" she asked me again, with her witch-like eagerness, even in Estella's hearing. (346)

Miss Havisham's secret revealed
-sickly desire to repudiate what's outside Satis House
reason:
1) From Estella she looked at me, with a searching glance that seemed to pry into my heart and probe its wounds. "
How does she use you, Pip; how does she use you?
" she asked me again, with her witch-like eagerness, even in Estella's hearing. (346)
-> takes pleasure in using Estella as weapon of retribution
2)
I saw in this
, wretched though it made me, and bitter the sense of dependence and even of degradation that it awakened,--
I saw in this
that Estella was set to wreak Miss Havisham's revenge on men, and that she was not to be given to me until she had gratified it for a term.
I saw in this
, a reason for her being beforehand assigned to me. Sending her out to attract and torment and do mischief, Miss Havisham sent her with the malicious assurance that she was beyond the reach of all admirers, and that all who staked upon that cast were secured to lose.
I saw in this
that I, too, was tormented by a perversion of ingenuity, even while the prize was reserved for me.
I saw in this
the reason for my being staved off so long and the reason for my late guardian's declining to commit himself to the formal knowledge of such a scheme. In a word,
I saw in this
Miss Havisham as I had her then and there before my eyes, and always had had her before my eyes; and
I saw in this
, the distinct shadow of the darkened and unhealthy house in which her life was
hidden from the sun.
(347)
-> "I saw in this" repeated: repeated realization
her scheme of retaliation, revenge -> ...-> real reason= the house
=absolute isolation
her antisocial attitude
<self-confined solitude>
main theme: isolation = bad
-wall of solitude-> bound to become corrupted
gave a distorted image of grandeur to Pip
attention shifts to articles in the room
ghostly reflection thrown large by the fire upon the ceiling and the wall, I saw in everything the
construction
that my mind had come to, repeated and thrown back to me. (347)
-house begets these images: destructive to Havisham who controls the fate of Estella and Pip
-> thrust them into path of mutual destruction
(Pip walks voluntarily into this path because he a distorted image of grandeur)
after illusion
is gone
cobwebs
from the centre-piece, in the crawlings of the
spiders
on the cloth, in the tracks of the
mice
as they betook their little quickened hearts behind the panels, and in the gropings and pausings of the
beetles
on the floor. (348) (beetles as if writing)
-> nothingness,
futility
of ambition/dreams/expectations
Miss Havisham catching fire
-descibed as a living dead "dried up"
1) image of her when they first met
2) illusions seen by Pip as a child and as an adult
A childish association revived with wonderful force in the moment of the slight action, and I fancied that I saw Miss Havisham hanging to the beam. (459)
In the moment when I was withdrawing my head to go quietly away, I saw a great flaming light spring up. In the same moment I saw her running at me, shrieking, with a whirl of fire blazing all about her, and soaring at least as many feet above her head as she was high. (460)
->
1)combustible subject
2)detailed, graphic suggestion that Miss Havisham is not a human being
Magwitch and Miss Havisham
-life devoted to will for retaliation, vengeance
-swindled by Compeyson
-no inherent claim to enjoy what they have

H: hurt pride
M: became certain about social principle from this experience

-society's justice system has misunderstood, misguided measures
-> favorable to those with gentlemanly appearance (used by C's lawyer)
-> dedicated to will for mastery
M has no intention of correcting this but tries to exploit the society and very people that exploited him
-> 1) become a gentleman
2) raise a gentleman with his money

-> ownership of gentleman founded by his realization of relationships
Society
-no human relations
-society where everyone is trying to gain mastery
-Compeyson can also be said to have a strategy to live in such a society
-society operated by malice -> people struggling to gain mastery

H feels there is nothing wrong with using Estella as a tool for revenge
if there is a reason for retribution (wronged by others) -> rightful to wrong others
-> both believe there is justifiable exploitation of human beings
Who is the real master in society?
M & H both use power to control faith of individuals

-> human beings are constructed out of violence and emotional injury they receive
effects formation of self-identity
also seen through Trabb's boy, Orlick...
not based on mutual trust and love
-need to work really hard to
M) finance Pip's upbringing
H) never forget the day of self-wound, her pride got hurt
Trabb's boy
-mistreated, bullied by Trabb (like Pip and his family members, relatives)
-> abstract will for vengence
target: principal not individuals
principals of society that mistreats him because he lacks prestige
Orlick
Keeps saying Pip is a villian
"I tell you it was your doing,--I tell you it was done through you," he retorted, catching up the gun, and making a blow with the stock at the vacant air between us. "I come upon her from behind, as I come upon you to-night. I giv' it her! I left her for dead, and if there had been a limekiln as nigh her as there is now nigh you, she shouldn't have come to life again. But it warn't Old Orlick as did it; it was you. You was favored, and he was bullied and beat. Old Orlick bullied and beat, eh? Now you pays for it. You done it; now you pays for it." (487)
-animosity directed at society that unreasonably favors somebody like Pip
-feels cheated out of opportunity to become as great as Pip

<social background>
old social hierarchical system eddying away
-nothing intrinsic to tell right/wrong
-everyone was anxious to become wealthy/powerful
- no "birthright" -> need to go get it

Orlick can't understand
-Orlick may represent society based on struggles (@margins of society)
-his awkward, stooping structure: looking for ways to raise war with society that was unfavorable to him
-felt an emotional alliance with Pip

felt like Pip was his brother in a way
-no fortune
-no social connections
-> emotional alliance
"I killed her for you"
but you don't acknowledge
me as your benefactor?
vengeance, retaliation at a social level
-boiling sense lower, laboring class' discontent
-despite hard work, ambition, they were ill treated and disfavored
-> Orlick embodies this discontentment
social logic that drive society
-violent struggle for people to gain mastery
-transitional society

-old values(aristocratic, mutual trust that defined master-slave) rendered obsolete
-new breed of individuals (Herbert, Magwitch) who are fueled by different motives such as industrial, capitalistic...

-> new opportunities for people who seek opportunity
-> Dickens is saying that this is not so simple
transitional state
aristocratic futile society ----------------> capitalistic society
lingering effect
ex) being a gentleman
-spiritual crisis: people are puzzled after old values are removed
-so, they avoid it by clinging to old values (of gentleman)
-they use "gentleman" to make up for the lack of moral entitlement that they have
ex) Pip wants
- to prove that he deserves to be one, not accidental
- to have conviction from society that he's respectable and next thing to birthright

cf) M: brief period of claiming P as son
Pip and Miss Havisham's father
Havisham's power is not from her family background
in Herbert's dialogue with Pip, he says
1) Miss Havisham's father worked his way to money
2) brewery-pub

-> parallel to Pip
1) confusion about what entitles a gentleman
why it should be a crack thing to be a brewer; but it is indisputable that while you cannot possibly be genteel and bake, you may be as genteel as never was and brew. You see it every day." (208)
2) interesting reversal
"Yet a gentleman may not keep a public-house; may he?" said I.
"Not on any account," returned Herbert; "but
a public-house may keep a gentleman.
(208)
pub
-a steady source of income in which one can establish himself as gentleman
-lucrative source of income to pursue ambition to become gentleman

like Pip: money -> buy education, teacher... -> gentleman
-> real success come from other's respect: Pip still cherish this idea of gentleman
cf) absence of hardworking principal + gifts -> spoiled brat
Mrs. Pocket
old aristocratic background
her style of living is laughable
-> wanted to show they're no longer viable members of society

was probably showered with great affection + claim to old aristocracy -> knows principals of old society (codes of behavior)
-> result is not so good; when it comes to practical manners, she's clueless

homebound, no point of contact with society
-> Pocket struggles to keep up her style of living(but doesn't show how hard he works because he loves her) + servants do all the work
-> on their way out; make mockery of themselves
"You've to work way to mastery"
Miss Havisham
-different case of viability
-stays home but becomes master
:a wielding power over individuals

M and H are blueprints of people who claimed mastery
it was easier for H because she had money, for M it was harder because he had no money to start with
M: learned how important it is to be a gentleman through Compeyson -> worked like a dog in Australia to support Pip
state of moral limbo / moral vacuum
old system is going out, but there is nothing new
19c capitalistic world
-great sense of euphoria but no morality
-> need for struggle
-> exploit, manipulate as you've been exploited and manipulated (M, H)
still viable: people still struggle to gain authority and system can't counter balance that
"Who'll stop this vicious cycle?"
Pip
-another Estella
-cause and effect
malice
fury
retaliation
resentment
inherited to
next generation
: no sense of real beginning
- if this causality operates at a social level, Estella will become H unless somebody makes an effort to stop it and break it
-> tries to do so by Pip's change
However, Pip can't go back to little Pip through Joe
return of Magwitch - upsetting
-alludes to Frankenstein
The imaginary student (Dr. Frankenstein) pursued by the misshapen creature he had impiously made, was not more wretched than I, pursued by the creature who had made me, and recoiling from him with a stronger repulsion, the more he admired me and the fonder he was of me. (386)
-> unadulterated sense of repulsion, hatred
-becomes repulsed by why M supported P because he understands M's plan is similar to H's treatment of E (creator=M, creation=P)

-> negative trajectory of downward decline + can't be unshackled (binding relationship: "I'm your father"
-by struggle, retaliation, vicarious means of growing satisfaction
:M wants to watch P rise to gentleman and use/exploit people -> M's pleasure
my repugnance to him had all melted away; and in the Hunted, wounded, shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who had meant to be my benefactor, and who had felt affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years. I only saw in him a much better man than I had been to Joe.
persecution, anxiety -------> affection, pity for M
-> signal for change, disconnect cycle
what's the reason behind becoming good now?
-rarely gives a social motive,
"environmental determinism"
-hard to get out of it
-treated badly -----> treat bad: H, M, O, Trabb's boy
but P's an exception and there's no social cause
Pip becomes his own motif for self transduction with his own voluntary will
Pip never was a bad person + was an affectionate child craving affection
-> human born good (Dickens' backbone)
does this goodness affect other parts of life such as marriage, settlement of debt...?

is it a survival logic?
identity crisis
That I had a fever and was avoided, that I suffered greatly, that I often lost my reason, that the time seemed interminable, that I confounded impossible existences with my own
identity
; that I was a brick in the house-wall, and yet entreating to be released from the giddy place where the builders had set me; that I was a steel beam of a vast engine, clashing and whirling over a gulf, and yet that I implored in my own person to have the engine stopped, and my part in it hammered off; that I passed through these phases of disease, I know of my own remembrance, (528)
-not complete and whole but fragmentary
-always changing
-dramatization of fragmentary idetity that one has to endure in life (made by force external to himself)
-> puts together how he has been anxious about how people would treat/laugh at him...
->Joe rescues from nightmare
Joe = old beacon of life, unchanging, permanent symbol of friendship, love, affection
Joe and Pip
but the tension is still there
-sense of awkwardness: invisible division
Joe's marriage = folktale without space in London society
*Joe: childlike old man
However, even innocent Joe knows about this:
Pip, dear old chap, life is made of ever so many partings
welded together
, as I may say, and one man's a blacksmith, and one's a whitesmith, and one's a goldsmith, and one's a coppersmith. Diwisions among such must come, and must be met as they come. If there's been any fault at all to-day, it's mine.
You and me is not two figures to be together in London
; nor yet anywheres else but what is private, and beknown, and understood among friends.
-> society that operates by division
-> gives an alternative through Pip but it can be applied differently to various individuals
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