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Transcript of Computer Hardware
Open Software A operating system runs program,manage the computer resources and interact with the user. Utility Software Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool.Utility software usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, application software and data storage) operates. Due to this focus, utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge Types of Utility Software Virus Protection
Clean up tools
Defragmentation Virus Protection Computers can be attacked by viruses,worms and Trojans arriving with emails or during access to the internet.Anti-virus software checks for intruders Firewalls A firewall can either be software-based or hardware-based and is used to help keep a network secure. Its primary objective is to control the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether it should be allowed through or not, based on a predetermined rule set. A network's firewall builds a bridge between an internal network that is assumed to be secure and trusted, and another network, usually an external (inter)network, such as the Internet, that is not assumed to be secure and trusted Clean up Tools Cleanup is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computer's hard drive. The utility first searches and analyzes the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, and then removes the unnecessary files. Defragmentation defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into the smallest number of contiguous regions. Hard Drive Controller Ports In computer networking, the term port can refer to either physical or virtual connection points.Physical network ports allow connecting cables to computers, routers, modems and other peripheral devices. Several different types of physical ports available on computer network hardware include: USB
Serial The disk controller is the circuit which enables the CPU to communicate with a hard disk, floppy disk or other kind of disk drive. Types of Controllers: SATA
EIDE SATA SATA stands for serial advanced technology attachment. This is a computer bus interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical devices. IDE IDE stands for integrated drive electronics. It refers to a standard electronic interface between a computer motherboard's data paths and the computers disk storage devices. EIDE Enhanced IDE is an extension to the IDE interface that supports the ATA-2 and ATAPI standards. USB Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices Parallel A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals. In computing, a parallel port is a parallel communication physical interface. Serial In computing, a serial port is a serial communication physical interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time Internal Memory Computer internal memory is used to store data that is used by the system at start up and to run various types of programs such as the operating system. Typically, internal memory is contained on small microchips that are either attached or connected to the computer's motherboard. Types of Memory: RAM
Cache RAM Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be accessed in very nearly the same amount of time for any storage location, so data can be accessed quickly in any random order. ROM Read-only memory (ROM) is a class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates). Cache A web cache is a mechanism for the temporary storage (caching) of web documents, such as HTML pages and images, to reduce bandwidth usage, server load, and perceived lag. A web cache stores copies of documents passing through it; subsequent requests may be satisfied from the cache if certain conditions are met. Specialized Cards Network Card A network card (also called a Network Adapter or Network Interface Card, or NIC for short) acts as the interface between a computer and a network cable. The purpose of the network card is to prepare, send, and control data on the network. Graphics Card A graphics card is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display. Most video cards offer various functions such as accelerated rendering of 3D scenes and 2D graphics, MPEG-2/MPEG-4 decoding, TV output, or the ability to connect multiple monitors Peripheral Devices A peripheral is a device connected to a host computer, but not part of it. It expands the host's capabilities but does not form part of the core computer architecture. It is often, but not always, partially or completely dependent on the host. Output Devices An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) which converts the electronically generated information into human-readable form Input Devices In computing, an input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance Cabling Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable is type of wire that consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire. The shield minimizes electrical and radio frequency interference. Coaxial cabling is the primary type of cabling used by the cable television industry and is also widely used for computer networks, such as Ethernet. Although more expensive than standard telephone wire, it is much less susceptible to interference and can carry much more data. Optical Cable Optical cable is also known as toslink.Its most common use is in consumer audio equipment (via a "digital optical" socket), where it carries a digital audio stream from components Twister Pair Cable Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs. Backing Storage Backing storage devices are where you can store data permanently. This means that data is held when the computer is switched off and can be loaded onto a computer system when required.The hardware that stores the data are called backing storage media. The media are put into backing storage devices. Types of Storage: Floppy Disk
Flash Memory Cards
Fixed Drives Floppy Disk A floppy disk, or diskette, is a disk storage medium composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic carrier lined with fabric that removes dust particles. They are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD). Optical Media In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminum) on one of its flat surfaces. Flash Memory Card A memory card or flash card is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information. They are commonly used in many electronic devices, including digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, MP3 players and video game consoles. They are small, re-recordable, and able to retain data without power. Portable Drives A magnetic disk drive that plugs into a USB or FireWire port on a computer. Used for backup, secondary storage as well as transport, portable hard drives rival, and may often exceed, the capacity of internal hard drives. Fixed Drives fixed disk is a disk drive in which the storage medium is permanently attached within the device. The drive may contain more than one disk – the so-called disk stack. The individual disks in the stack are called platters. Main Internal Components Hard Drive Controllers Ports Internal Memory Specialized Cards Operating Systems Backing Storage's Cabling Peripheral Devices There are two types of specialized cards:
Graphics Card A Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) is an electronic set of instructions that a Personal Computer (PC) uses to successfully start up. It is located on a chip on the motherboard inside of a computer and is designed to be protected from disk failure. The power supply unit's job is to convert the power provided from the outlet into usable power for the many parts inside the computer case. BIOS Power Supply Unit In electronic systems, a heat sink is a passive component that cools a device by dissipating heat into the surrounding air. Heat sinks are used to cool electronic components such as high-power semiconductor devices, and optoelectronic devices such as higher-power lasers and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Fan and Heat Sink References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_memory#Primary_storage http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer http://pcsupport.about.com/od/componentprofiles/p/p_mobo.htm http://support.microsoft.com/kb/310312 http://computer.howstuffworks.com/graphics-card.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_fiber_cable http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/memory.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firewall_(computing) Done by: Khoula Al Sadi