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Transcript of COFFEE
Alteration (influenced by Italian caffè, from Turkish) Ottoman:Turkishqahveh
Coffee plant is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is a tropical shrub or tree that originated in Africa and is currently produced in many of the world's hotter climates, including South America, Central America, Mexico, Hawaii and parts of Asia. The Arabs were the first, not only to cultivate coffee but also to begin its trade. By the fifteenth century, coffee was being grown in the Yemeni district of Arabia and by the sixteenth century it was known in Persia, Egypt, Syria and Turkey.
Coffee was not only drunk in homes but also in the many public coffee houses -- called qahvehkhaneh -- which began to appear in cities across the Near East.
In fact, they quickly became such an important center for the exchange of information that the coffee houses were often referred to as 'Schools of the Wise.'
With thousands of pilgrims visiting the holy city of Mecca each year from all over the world, word of the 'wine of Araby' as the drink was often called, was beginning to spread far beyond Arabia. In an effort to maintain its complete monopoly in the early coffee trade, the Arabians continued to closely guard their coffee production.
The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the thirteenth century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goat herder who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen.The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Balkans, Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas. The Arabian
Peninsula COFFEE COFFEE
- is a brewed beverage with a distinct aroma and flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the Coffea plant.
- Any of various tropical African shrubs or trees of the genus Coffea, especially C. arabica, widely cultivated in the tropics for their seeds that are dried, roasted, and ground to prepare a stimulating aromatic drink.
- generally refers to a beverage made by the infusion, decoction or percolation of the roasted, ground seeds of the coffee plant, also prized for its aroma and flavor, and is noted for the fact that it naturally contains varying levels of caffeine. A coffee bearer, from the Ottomanquarters in Cairo, Egypt, in the year 1857. The history of coffee goes at least as far back as the thirteenth century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goat herder who discovered coffee, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal. From Ethiopia, coffee was said to have spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.
By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Balkans, Italy, and to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas. A coffee bearer, from the Ottoman quarters in Cairo, Egypt, in the year 1857 Coffee comes
to Europe By the 17th century, coffee had made its way to Europe and was becoming popular across the continent. Opponents were overly cautious, calling the beverage the 'bitter invention of Satan.' With the coming of coffee to Venice in 1615, the local clergy condemned it. The controversy was so great that Pope Clement VIII was asked to intervene. Before making a decision however, he decided to taste the beverage for himself. He found the drink so satisfying that he gave it Papal approval.
Despite such controversy, in the major cities of England, Austria, France, Germany and Holland, coffee houses were quickly becoming centers of social activity and communication. In England 'penny universities' sprang up, so called because for the price of a penny one could purchase a cup of coffee and engage in stimulating conversation. The New World Though coffee houses rapidly began to appear, tea continued to be the favored drink in the New World until 1773 when the colonists revolted against a heavy tax on tea imposed by King George. The revolt, known as the Boston Tea Party, would forever change the American drinking preference to coffee. Plantations Around
the World As demand for the beverage continued to spread, there was tense competition to cultivate coffee outside of Arabia. Though the Arabs tried hard to maintain their monopoly, the Dutch finally succeeded, in the latter half of the 17th century, to obtain some seedlings.
The Dutch did a curious thing, however. In 1714, the Mayor of Amsterdam presented a gift of a young coffee plant to King Louis XIV of France. The King ordered it to be planted in the Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. In 1723, a young naval officer, Gabriel de Clieu obtained a seedling from the King's plant.
Coffee is said to have come to Brazil in the hands of Francisco de Mello Palheta who was sent by the emperor to French Guiana for the purpose of obtaining coffee seedlings. But the French were not willing to share and Palheta was unsuccessful.
In only 100 years, coffee had established itself as a commodity crop throughout the world. Missionaries and travellers, traders and colonists continued to carry coffee seeds to new lands and coffee trees were planted worldwide.
And by the end of the 18th century, coffee had become one of the world's most profitable export crops. CHARACTERISTICS OF COFFEE
The basic characteristics of good coffee are:
1) Taste: The since that leaves in once mouth which depends on the acidity and the bouquet.
2) The Bachets: The sense of smell that is connected with the sense of Taste.
3) Acidity: The most desirable characteristics of coffee which causes the tingling that acts as a stimulant for the senses of taste & smell
4) Density: The texture in the mouth of coffee and the thick or heavy sense that leaves us. TYPES OF COFFEE BEANS
•Liberica ROBUSTA Robusta or the Canephora type of coffee beans covers 40% of the coffee production in the whole world. It is easier to grow compared to Arabica as it has a very high resistance to weather and disease. Also, it is a lot cheaper compared to Arabica and Kona. Robusta can be blended with other coffee blends because of its strong flavor giving every coffee a "kick". It also does not vary in flavors compared to Arabica. Originally, Robusta was discovered while growing naturally in an area now called as the "Democratic Republic of Congo". Robusta coffee beans are lower grades of coffee that is commonly known at the lower elevations because of its feature of having an astringent flavorings and containing higher caffeine amounts. ARABICA Unlike Robusta, the Arabica type of coffee beans covers 60% of the coffee production in the whole world because of the large bush that Arabica plants have. Also Arabica plants are very vulnerable to pests, disease and frost. With this reason, the coffee beans of Arabica plants are extremely expensive. Arabica coffee beans can be used on its wholesome form as well as it can be used as a base with Robusta for coffee blends. However, Arabica has a very delicate flavor that can be used as add-ons on the flavorings of coffee blends.
But Arabica coffee beans still vary accordingly to the region where they are grown and used. In South and Central America, the Arabica coffee beans have the moderate aroma and body, which are used mostly for breakfast blends with American flavored coffees. Arabica coffee beans produce a superior grade of coffee known as the gourmet coffee because it contains half of the Robusta caffeine as well as more aromatic properties and desirable flavorings. Being a worldwide coffee variation, Arabica coffee beans are able to meet a fraction of the standard provide by the Specialty Coffee Association of America. The Arabica type of coffee beans has the most flavored profiles while Robusta is grown predominantly because of its ability and hardiness to thrive. Also Arabica has the various distinct flavors and characteristics of coffee beans.
There are more variations of Arabica coffee beans found in country of Africa because the country is the first one in the entire world that valued drinking coffee. Three of the topmost variations of Arabica coffee are found in Africa as well namely the Yirgacheffe, Sidamo and Harrar.
Throughout the time, it had become synonymous with the word coffee itself. More variations of Arabica coffee beans are also found in Hawaii where the popular variation was called the "Hawaiian Kona", which grows on the Mountain Hualalai's slopes. LIBERICA
This coffee specie was first discovered in Liberia, West Africa. It grows up to 9 meters tall and gives cherries larger than those picked from Arabica plants. The plant was brought to Indonesia at the end of the 19th century to replace the Arabica trees killed by the coffee rust disease. It is similar to Robusta beans tasting characteristics and is still found in parts of Central and East Java nowadays.
There is also a diversity of Liberica coffee called Baraco grown in the Philippines (provinces of Batangas and Cavite). However many traders pass off Excelsa as Baracao as its supply is limited and very expensive. USES OF COFFEE Kill fridge odor
Erase smells on your hands
Make rich compost
Get shiny hair
Reduce fireplace mess
Pin cushion filler
Repelants Fertilize plants
Keep cats out of your garden
Scrub all kinds of surfaces
Auto air freshener
Pretty vase fillers
Secret recipe ingredient
Touch up furniture scratches HEALTH EFFECTS OF COFFEE • All-Cause Mortality
• Reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease and Dementia
• Reduced risk of gallstone disease
• Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease
• Caffeine and analgesics •Antidiabetic
• Prevent Cancer
•Prevention of dental caries Disadvantages:
Psychological effects and sleep changes THANK YOU :)