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Chapter 23 World War I
Transcript of Chapter 23 World War I
World War I
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
On August 1st, Germany (ally with Austria Hungary) declares war on Russia (ally w/ Serbia) then France.
(go back to Alliances to understand)
The "Great War": begins
Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Alliances Archduke Ferdinand Gavrib Princip Central Powers Allied Powers Kaiser Wilhelm II Woodrow Wilson
Ch. 24 The Roaring Twenties
How an assassination in Europe sparked the deadliest war the world had ever seen. You will find out how the United States was drawn into the fighting and had to choose between helping France and Britain or remaining isolated from world conflict. You will learn about new battle strategies and technology, the war effort at home, and how the war came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles.
Quiz: ______________ Propaganda Project: ___________
Essential Questions for the Chapter:
Mobilize patriotism Selective Service Act of 1917 Espionage Act 1917 Sedition Act 1918 CPI Schenck v. US propaganda war bonds/liberty bonds National War Labor board
Communists reparations Armistice Treaty of Versailles Influenza Epidemic Wilson’s 14 points League of Nations
Stalemate 1st /2nd battle of Marnes Communists Eastern Front Western Front Verdun Somme River Saint- Miihiel
Lusitania Sussex Zimmerman Note
trench warfare tanks machine guns poisonous gas airplanes German U- boats
1. What were the causes of World War I?
2. What new technologies did armies in WWI use?
3. What events challenged the United States neutrality and caused the US to enter the war?
4. What steps did the United States take to mobilize for war?
5. What were major battles of the war?
6. How did World War I come to an end and what were the costs?
Ch. 23 World War I
Ch. 22- American as a World Power
Location: Europe (Mainly France)
In his farewell address in 1797, George Washington cautioned his fellow Americans to "avoid foreign entanglements," and for a full century thereafter, the nation did just that.
1) In your notes in three sentences, explain how America went against Washington's warning and became a world power in our last chapter of study.
Later on: Italy -1915
United States -1917
Germany, Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire
=to build up strong forces to prepare for war- symbol of strength
= friendships between nations to protect one another
= when one stronger country takes over another
=extreme pride in nations encouraged
June 28, 1914
After Austria-Hungary annexed an area of land that had belonged to the Slavs, Serbia reacted.
What new technologies were used in warfare in World War I?
The Telegraph and Carrier Pigeons
Answer the following questions in your notes:
1. What were the two names of the sides during WW1?
2. What were the four MAIN causes of WW1?
- is defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches
-soldiers ate, slept, and fought from a network of miles of dug trenches for months at a time
- a high powered rifle that would require a gun crew of 2-4 people created by Hiram Maxim
could fire 400 to 600 rounds per minute (equal to about 80 soldiers w/ rifles)
- Tanks were used later in the war (late 1916 early 1917) and were largely used to break enemy lines/ run through barbed wire
used to forge enemy lines
soldiers used them as protection/walked behind them
First used by the French, then developed by Germans, usually chlorine, fired upon soldiers in the trenches.
Later on Phosgene and Mustard gas were used.
-Considered "uncivilized" prior to WWI
-hand held bombs usually detonated by impact or timed
-largely used in trench warfare
-bombing "parties" consisted of 7-9 men and would attack a trench by first throwing a grenade
-telegraph invented by Samuel Morse, is a major way countries communicated during the war
-Man made communication was often unreliable
Airplanes were mostly used for spying in WW1.
-barbed wire was used to slow down infantries
-One strategy of England was to try and "starve" Germany into surrender by "Blockading" trade ships
-land mines were the most feared weapon you would lose limbs
Increased Industrialization and new technology=
What events challenged the United States neutrality and caused the US to enter the war?
Sinking of the Lusitania
Sinking of the Sussex
Woodrow Wilson declares that US will remain "neutral"
1. It was largely seen as a "European Conflict"
Therefore America continues to trade and make money off of both sides
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
British try to blockade ships from
trading with Germany
and stop trade ships as well as food ships.
In May 1915, a German U-boat
torpedoes a British passenger ship, the Lusitania, killing 1200 people
, including 128 Americans.
In March 1916, another passenger boat is sunk- the Sussex, a French Ship.
80 casualties are American.
Germany agrees to stop attacking "non-military ships."
to keep the US out of the war in Europe.
April 6, 1917
What steps did the United States taken to mobilize for war?
Men and Women
en and Women
= men were needed as soldiers to fight in the war.
= money for supplies and troops were needed to fight
=weapons and food were needed for soldiers
=people needed to be influenced to support the war
Solution to the need for soldiers=
Selective Service Act of 1917
required all males between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for the draft. Accounted for 3 million men to be drafted into war, including African Americans.
Women and War-
over 30,000 women volunteered as nurses and worked other jobs near the front lines.
They were not included in the draft.
Labor Shortage (Effect)
Millions of men in the military caused a
. Workers were needed in factories to make supplies.
Factory owners turned to:
2) African Americans
Congress raised taxes and encouraged the buying of
war bonds= bonds purchased that could later be cashed in for a return on your money
(basically a loan to the gov't).
National War Labor Board:
Was created to head the production of tanks, weapons,
planes, leather for uniform.
Herbert Hoover was chosen to head the FA.
Goal: to ensure adequate food and supplies for soldiers.
Effect: "Meatless Mondays" "Wheatless Wednesdays"
Goal 2: Obedience
helped finance the war by raising 21 billion dollars.
Schenck v United States 1918:
Answer the following questions in your notes:
1. What do you think it means when a country "mobilizes for war?"
2. What must a country do to "mobilize" for war?
FOF: Pick a number and a color.
1. What were the two sides in WW1?
2. Name one technological advance of the WWI era and what it was used for.
3. Name one event that threatened US neutrality and made us enter the war.
What were the major battles of WW1?
First Battle of Marne
Battle of Tannenberg
Battle of Verdun
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Jutland
Second Battle of the Marne
Two "Fronts" of the War
September 5- 12, 1914
Marne River, France (Western Front**)
French and British Expeditionary Forces vs. Germans
Allied Victory against the German Army
This battle effectively ended the month long German offensive that opened the war and had reached the outskirts of Paris
British and French armies forced the German army to abandon its push on Paris and retreat, setting the stage for four years of trench warfare on the Western Front
August 26-30, 1914
East Prussia (Modern day Poland) Eastern Front
Russian First and Second Armies vs. Germany Eighth Army
Russia's worst defeat in WW1, Russian army never fully recovered from this battle
February 21- December 18, 1916
Northeastern France, Western Front
German General Von Falkenhayn wanted to make "France bleed" by attacking a narrow stretch of land that had historic sentiment to the French- Verdun
Verdun resulted in 698,000 battlefield deaths ( 363k French, 336k German), and average of 70,000 deaths for each of the ten months of battle. It was the longest and most devastating battle of WW1
July 1, 1916- November 1, 1916
France (Western Front)
English and French vs. Germans
symbolized the horrors of warfare- by the end of the battle the British had suffered 420k casualties, French 200k, and Germans 500k.
May 31- June 1, 1916
Jutland, Denmark (Naval Battle)
British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet vs. Germany Navy's High Seas Fleet
The greatest naval battle of the First World War. Jutland had the ingredients to be a great British naval victory- but the end result was much less clear-cut. Although it was the only major naval battle of WW1, it became the largest sea battle in naval warfare history- in terms of the number of battleships engaged.
July 5- August 16, 1918
: Marne River, France (Western Front)
French, British, US vs German
Turning point of the war on the Western Front. It began as a German offensive attack but ended as a successful Allied counter-attack. This marked the last real attempt by the Central Powers to win WW1. Allied Casualties were: French 95k, British 13k, United States 12K. For the Germans: 168k.
League of Nations
Treaty of Versailles= Official End of WW1
Wilson's Plan for Peace
Germans defeated at Saint Mihiel
Russia pulls out of WW1
How did the war come to an end?
Beaten down from war- Russia signs the Treaty
- a peace agreement
with Germany in 1918.
Meanwhile in Russia- a
is going on. The
- a group of communists led by
overthrows the Czar of Russia.
This closes the "Eastern Front"
Fresh from training,
General Pershing's American Expeditionary Forces
help defeat the
on the border of France and Germany.
Wilson's Plan for
"Peace without Victory"
began in January of 1917 and became known as
"Wilson's Fourteen Points".
Wilson's Fourteen Points wanted to address the causes of WW1. (Think Back to "MAIN".)
Main Points Which cause?
1. Focused on limiting the size of armies
is an agreement to stop fighting
Why did Germany agree to stop fighting?
started to pull out of war.
Did you know?
Veteran's Day is celebrated on November 11th every year because that is when Germany agreed to stop fighting in WW1.
Sit with your partners. Today we will finish up presentations. Followed by a brief overview of your "snow day" assignment.
The main battles will not be in your test. You do need to know where a majority of the battles were fought.
Test is Thursday and Friday.
Lodge led opposition
Wanted to keep America
independent from Europe
Did not want to get drawn
into other nation’s conflicts
Opposition to League of Nations
Wilson went coast to coast trying to create support for League of Nations
Wilson’s Last Battle
Big Four (Great Britain, Italy, France, USA)
Treaty of Versailles
Main Points of the Treaty
Germany had to say it started the war (War Guilt Clause)
The main points of Treaty of Versailles [BRAT]
GOAL: PUNISH GERMANY
Europe after WW1
Congress Blocks the Treaty
US Congress needed
2/3rds of Senate to ratify the Treaty of Versailles.
Question 6 Continued
$ Money $
Loss of Life
German Resentment towards Europe
What were the costs of WW1?
*The resentment that allowed Adolph Hilter to rise to power and WW2
Missing & POW %
5,000,000 Allied Deaths
3,500,000 Central Deaths
Allies spent $145 Billion
Central Powers spent $63 Billion
$30 Billion in property destroyed= mainly in France
Flu kills 30 million people worldwide starting in 1918
Above all else- Germans were angered over the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany entered a severe economic depression over the next decade.
- idea of "Social Darwinism- the stronger nations will survive, emphasis on masculinity, war proves manhood
Russia will protect Serbia and/ or Slavs
France responds by allying with Russia and England
Germany allies with Austria- Hungary and tells them they will support them no matter what
Industrialization caused Imperialism bc of need for more resources and markets= therefore all nations wanted colonies in Africa and Asia
Kaiser- crazy military man
Ex- John Bull= fat
yellow journalism, sensationalism, cartoons, encourage stereotypes of other nations and foster rivalries
While riding through the streets, 7 Serbian nationalist assassins attack Ferdinand and his wife. Gavrilo Princip shoots both and kills them.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was taking a trip to Sarajevo with his wife Sophie.
Guns often jammed
Were extremely heavy (80-120 pounds)
Would overheat and become inoperative
-Conditions: cold, wet, muddy= breeding ground for disease and lice
-"No Man's Land"
-accounted for many deaths, early in the war
-mustard gas was odorless and would cause blisters inside and out on victims
-Chlorine gas once inhaled would destroy the victim's respiratory organs and bring on choking attacks
Could only fit 3 soldiers at most
would often get stuck in the mud
-over 100,000 were used, and had a success rate of 95%
-Pigeons played a vital part in WW1, as they proved to be an extremely reliable way of sending messages
lightly armored- had to attack by surprise
Germany responded by using submarines called "U-Boats" to sink any ships coming to England
"Bombers" were pilots who would toss a bomb out the side of the plane with their hands.
They had to fly low to the ground which was dangerous because they could be shot down by enemy rifles
French, British, Russia
need for more soldiers
new weapons and tactics of war=
4. American business had interest in staying neutral to keep making money (they can trade with both sides)
3. Civil War Vet's don't want more war
2. Impact of Immigration on America= many different cultures in America
Germans use "U-boats" to sink any ships coming to England
in an effort to cut off supplies to England.
In March 1917, American newspapers
get hold of a "secret" telegram sent from German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico.
Get Mexico to declare war on U.S.
Chapter 23: World War I
DO NOW: Answer:
1. What event is this NY Times Article depicting?
2. According to the title, why was the Archduke and his wife assassinated?
3. How did this lead to the outbreak of WW1?
1. What nation is giving this warning?
2. What is the warning?
3. What waters are boats liable to destruction in?
1. What nation does Germany want to keep "neutral"?
2. What nation are they trying to make an alliance with?
3. What will Mexico get for declaring war on the US?
Espionage Act: it prohibited US citizens from interfering with Military operations, support of the military, and support of an enemy during time of war
Sedition Act: prohibited speaking out against the war, the US gov't and the military
Created posters, speeches, shows.= to support war effort
Recruited people to help "sell and support patriotism" through propaganda.
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
Goal 1: Support
They ruled: He presented a "clear and present" danger to the US gov't during a time of war, and was therefore guilt.
Charles Schenck was arrested for distributing pamphlets to potential WW1 war draftees, encouraging them to avoid the draft. He appealed his decision to the Supreme Court on the grounds that they violated his 1st amendment right of Freedom of Speech.
Take out last night's HW:
Battle of Tanneberg (both sides)
Grab chromebooks and continue fact collecting for your battle
Sit with battle groups from Friday
Period 2- Jacob+Tyler
Period 4- Cameron, Hailey, Mikayla
Period 7- Sean *See me during advisory
- Broken into groups and given one major battle
For these battles:
1) Research using the internet to find details (dates, sides, significance, outcome, front)
2) An interesting story or fact about this battle
Test will be Thursday and Friday
(half period each day)
Your group will be required to speak about the battle.
is worn out from war.
5. Create a
League of Nations- the League's goal would be to settle international disputes without war
4. Resolve colonial claims/border disputes
3. Encouraging Free Shipping
2. Ending Secret Alliances
The state of Germany
was in disarray= starvation, strikes
were dwindling= deaths/captures
Germany lost (land) in Europe and colonies
Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force and army was limited
Germany had to pay for damage of war.
agreed to it. US never joined the League of Nations.
Wilson campaigned around the country to try and gain support for the Treaty and the League of Nations.