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Tropical Rainforest Biome

By: Serena Schwartz and Eva Low 7-2
by

Eva Low

on 17 June 2013

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Transcript of Tropical Rainforest Biome

CLIMATE:
Amazon: 3.1600° S, 60.0300° W
-Central America; Amazon River Basin (Amazon River)
-Africa; Eastern Madagascar, Western Africa, and Zaire Basin
Southeastern Asia: 16° S to 20° N latitude
95° to 130° E.
-Oceanic; West Coast of India, Southeast Asia, Assam, New Guinea and Queensland, Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia
-15* to 25* North and South of the equator


-Long arms and legs for swinging in the canopy trees, spending much of their time up there.
- Long, skinny, flexible, strong tail, as a fifth limb for easier traveling and escape
-Stays in the forest tree tops, making them graceful and flexible to get away from predators. If it were on the forest floor, their limbs will make them clumsy and easy prey.


Water can affect the rainforests. The level of acidity can affect the wildlife in the forest. Too much can harm and kill off the organisms. Water can also “cool down” the humidity of the air. Dense vegetation can contain humid air in a certain place and water cools it off. Insects can also use water to move around. This is called surface tension.

Tropical Rainforest Biome
By: Eva Low and Serena Schwartz
Location-Geology/ Geography
Food Webs
Animal Adaptations
Abiotic Features
Amazon:
-No seasonal change
-Stays around 80.7*F all year
-High humidity
-30 to 180 inches of rain (rainy all year)
-November to May are the rainiest months

Plants and Animals
1)
Orangutang
: Location: Native to the rainforests of Indonesia and Malaysia. Borneo and Sumatra.
Diet: Tropical fruits and leaves, barks and insects.
Habitat: They are found in higher elevated forests, rainforests and lowland swamps. They sleep and move around on trees in search of food.
Physical Features: Covered in reddish-brown hair. Can be 5 feet tall. Weighs 60-250 pounds.
Indonesia
Bibliography
Amazon:
2)
The Black Caiman:
Location:
South America in the Amazon Rainforest
Diet: Fish, turtles, birds, capybara, and larger animals.
Habitat: The rivers and streams of the Amazon rainforest.
Size: 5 to 6 meters in length
Reproduction: Will lay 40-65 eggs on nests on the ground.
Physical Features: 5-6 meters in length. Has large, red eyes. The snout is narrow. It has scaly skin, which can either be off-white, all blak, brown, or tan, with black spots on it.
Plant Adaptations

-Lives on the surface of other plants, mostly the trunks and branches of trees, so it gets lots of sunlight
-Smaller plants live on the surface of other plants
-Ephipytes are the plants that grow on trees, and consist of ferns, orchids, bromeliads.
-Ephipylls are the smaller plants that grow on other plants and consist of mosses, liverworts, and lichens

The plants and animals need sunlight to survive, but it’s hard to get sunlight if you are on the ground. Only 1 % of sunlight actually touches the ground. There is a lot of shade due to canopy trees growing up to 240 feet tall. If a tree falls, all the plants will try to take advantage of the empty spot. Sunlight is critical for a tropical rainforests to thrive.

Soil:
The soil quality is pretty low. That's because of the warm and humid climate that tropical rainforests have. This means that any decomposing plants is broken down rather quickly, and the minerals are taken up by multiple plants at rapid pace or washed away by the rain water.
Toucan:

Amazon:
Location:
The Amazons. Central and South America's tropical and sub-tropical rainforests.
Diet:
Small fruits and insects.
Habitat:
Lives in holes of hollow trees.
Size: Can be 33-65 centimeters in length.
Reproduction: Lays 2-4 eggs a year.
Physical Features: Beak is a bright color and also 7.5 inches long. Body is mainly black, while face area is white or a yellowish color.

-Toucans have adapted to having large, long beaks
-The large beaks help them when competition among food is occurring, and gives them an “extra hand”
-One thing the beaks help with, is reaching food on branches that are too small to support the Toucan’s weight


-This plant has adapted to being a carnivorous plant
-Its leaves contain a special fluid that is able to break down and digest small animals or insects.
-It also has a “lid” on the top of it’s leaves. This helps it to not flood during the overflow of rain.
-The plant also has a pitcher near its roots that makes it stable in the non-nutriented soil and harsh ground conditions


-A group of plants that are always on defense
-They contain caffeine, morphine, or nicotine
-Containing those chemicals protects them from being eaten, as the animals have problems with their liver and cells if it has been digested
-They also have an extreme bitter taste
-They have adapted to survive in an environment where many herbivores exist

Producers
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
Tertiary Consumers
Orchids
Banana Trees
Bamboo
Coconut Trees
Seeds
Macaws
Fruit Bats
Chimpanzees
Parrots
Monkeys
Insects
Vampire Bats
Iguanas
Red-Eyed Tree Frog
Python
Jaguars
Decomposers
Bracket Fungi
Jelly-Like Fungi
Gilled Fungi
Slime Mold
Coral Fungi
Sunlight:
Water:

Location: Papau New Guinea
Diet: The caterpillars of these butterflies will only eat the Aristolochia schlecteri, a toxic pipevine plant. The adults feed on nectar of flowers.
Habitat: The rainforests of Papau New Guinea
Size: Largest butterfly in the world. Wingspan can be 10 to 12 inches long.
Reproduction: All of the Queen Alexandra’s butterflies lay their eggs on the Aristolochia schlecteri pipevine, which is very toxic. When the caterpillars digest this plant, they will become toxic to all their predators.

Queen Alexandra's Butterfly
Southeastern Asia:
The Red-Eyed Tree Frog
Amazon:
Habitat:
Central America and North of South America.
Diet:
This frog is carnivorous. They will eat insects such as crickets. They also eat smaller frogs.
Habitat:
They live in the lowlands of the rainforests, near ponds and streams. They will live in a water source where their eggs are going to be able to survive.
Reproduction:
The female frogs will lay their eggs on the underside of leaves above a water source, When the eggs hatch, the fluids inside the egg will help wash the tadpoles into the water.
Physical Features:
Males will grow to be 2 cm long. Females will grow to be 3-4 cm long. They have bulging red eyes and black slits as pupils. They are a bright green color with orange toes. They also have blue streaks and a fairly white underbelly. They also have suction-cup-like toes.

Hummingbird
Amazon:
Location: Western Hemisphere.
Habitat:
Places where nectar and food can be easily accessed. A rainforest is a perfect area.
Diet:
Flower nectar, tree sap, insects, and pollen.
Physical Characteristics:
Hummingbirds come in many different colors. Their exotic colors are simply beautiful. They have wings that beat 12-90 beats per second. They are relatively small compared to other birds. Hummingbirds also have a long beak used to drink nectar.
Reproduction:
Lays 1-3 eggs at a time.


Location: Throughout southeastern Asia.
Physical Features:
Extremely smelly. This attracts the Dawn Bat, which pollinates the trees.
5-6 inches wide, 12 inches long
2 inch seeds.
Has large spikes all around.
Tree is about 4 feet in diameter.
Grows in clusters of 1 to 45.
15 species of wild durian.
Grows as sub-tropical tree.
Durian
Indonesia:

The seeds of these trees are dispersed by animals who eat this fig. They are usually deposited close to a tree. The roots of the seeds slowly start to grow into the ground and will eventually suffocate the host tree’s roots. While as a seed, the strangler “sprouts” will take nutrients and all other energy from its host tree. The strangler figs slowly make their way up the host tree. When the host trees eventually die, the strangler figs still lives on. It would have probably reach the sub-canopy region of the rainforest, and will live almost like a tree, with a hollow hole down its middle.

Strangler Figs
Southeastern Asia:
Lipstick Tree
Amazon:
Location:
Native to Central and South America. Also found in the Caribbeans and other places
Habitat:
Likes direct sunlight. Sensitive to frost. Subtropical environment is fine, but this plant grows best in tropical climates.
Physical Characteristics:
Fruit grows in small trees or bushes about 6-20 feet in length. Most of the fruits are red, but there are rare green and yellow ones.
Uses:
Red dye used in commercial and industrial companies. People back then used it as body as body paint and was used for everything; love potions or medical maladies.




Brazil-Nut Tree

(Bertholletia excelsa)

Amazon:
Location: In the Amazon.
Habitat:
Above the tropical rainforest canopy. Up to 130 feet + high. Direct sunlight. They also live on flood plains and terra firma areas. Trees are very spaced out.
Physical Characteristics:
These trees can reach up to 130+ feet high. Yellow flowers grow on these trees, which will then turn into fruits that have 12-24 seeds inside. The nuts produced are surrounded by a hard shell, which opens when the nuts fall to the ground.
Extra Fact: Delicious, but very high in fat.

Southeastern Asia:
- Average temperature yearly is 80*F.
-Very humid and sticky due to the oceans surrounding it.
-Maritime-Tropical air mass.
-Average humidity is 70 to 90%
-Average Precipitation Annually is 60 to 100+ inches.


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http://www.blog.cuipo.org
1) Spider Monkey:
2) Toucan:
1) Ephipytes/Epiphylls:
2) Nepenthes Rafflesiana (Raffle's Pitcher Plant):
3) Alkaloids:
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