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Cyberbullying

The detrimental effects of cyberbullying in an educational context incorporating the main players (bully, victim, group, teacher) in the learning environment.
by

Anna Cunliffe

on 8 June 2010

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Transcript of Cyberbullying

Education - our Children's Future Cyberbullying Effects Learning What is this? How do I know? What are the symptoms?
Reluctance to go to school
Drop in self-esteem
Depression
Reluctance to use computer or mobile
(Johnson, 2004)
Withdrawn
Quiet
Anti-social
Change of mood
Cyberbullying has detrimental effects on: Helpful links to other sites:

http://www.netsafe.org.nz/
http://www.hectorsworld.com/
http://www.police.govt.nz/service/yes
http://www.nobully.org.nz
Cyberbullying is "bullying for the 21st century, using email, text messages and the internet"
(Aedy. cited in www.cyberbullying.info).
"Electronic bullying is a new form of bullying that may threaten adolescent social
and emotional development"
(Carroll-Lind, 2009, intro). Research has shown that involvement in bullying is related to poor outcomes for those who bully (Nansel et al., 2001, cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009).

“Being a bully has been associated with academic problems, externalizing problems, poor psychosocial adjustment, and delinquency in late adolescence and early adulthood” (Kupersmidt & Coie, 1990; Nansel et al., 2001; Perren & Hornung, 2005 cited in Raskauskas, et al, 2007, p564).

Bully related school suspensions are increasing (Towl, 2008, cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009).

Peer rejection, low self esteem, academic failure (Sullivan, 2000 cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009). The Cyberbully The Victim The Group “
Students cannot learn effectively if they are physically or verbally abused, victims of violence or bullying, or if their school surroundings are unsafe (ERO, 2000, p1, cited in Raskauskas, 2007, p1).

Higher than normal absenteeism, school avoidance, early school exit (dropout rates) (Carroll-Lind, 2009).

Physical symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression, school failure, risk-taking behaviours (alcohol and substance abuse), decreased selfesteem (Carroll-Lind, 2009).

Mental health issues, relationship difficulties, elevated risk of violence towards others (Carroll-Lind, 2009)

If bullying anonymous victims don't know who to watch out for - feelings of helplessness (Web Aware)

Feel scared, depressed, angry or ashamed (netsafe.org.nz)

Cyber and text bullying has been linked to suicide in New Zealand (Raskauskas, 2007). School violence can include “any conditions or acts that create a climate in which individual students and teachers feel fear or intimidation in addition to being the victims of assault, theft, or
vandalism” (Batsche & Knoff, 1994, p. 65, cited in Carroll-Lind 2007 p15)

Bystanders may become colluders due to fear of being targetted, wish to belong to group, likely to use aggression if see no negative consequences for the bully (Carroll-Lind, 2009).

NZ students perceive teachers are either unable or unwilling to control bullies’ behaviour (Adair et al., 2000; Carroll-Lind & Kearney, 2004, cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009).
Students who are bullied in cyberspace are also likely to be bullied at school (Maher, 2008 cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009, p16) Cyber vs 'Real World' Bullying
The Background Significant issue? Yes Cyberbullying is in every school Children's right to an education Children's right to be kept safe at school Has detrimental effects No one is immune No escape, can happen 24/7 Both victims experience similiar feelings and effects Both bullies have similiar motivational intention Cyberbullies feel less guilt due to anonymity barrier (Raskauskas, 2007). Exposure to greater number of bullies due to access via technology
"This may make the bullying more debilitating, isolating and humiliating”
(Carroll-Lind, 2009, p ix). Cyber victims can be targetted anywhere, anytime, even in privacy of own home “…cyberspace provides a new frontier that allows people to repeatedly violate the rights of others” (Shariff, & Johnny, 2007).
Remind Children Stop Block Tell Ensure up-to-date cybersafety policy and guidelines
Ensure children have parents signed consent for internet use
Monitor cellphone and internet usage
Continue ICT learning through appropriate professional development
Contribute to a whole school approach of 'no bullying'
Promote communication and support to the class
Provide information and contacts for help on this issue Different Viewpoints Victims in cyberspace likely to be bullied in school.
(Maher, 2008, cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009)

Over half of teenagers who are cyberbullied never report it (Web Aware)
Possible Solutions

Provide policies and procedures on prevention and reporting.

Provide internet safety policies, cyber-safety agreements and mobile use contracts.

Provide appropriate staff professional development.

Increase education about cyberbullying and its effects.

Utilise bullying programmes and kits, like Kia Kaha, KiwiCan and Netscape.

Promote positive student behaviour and well-being.

Establish a ‘safe-telling’ culture (Carroll-Lind, 2009).

“regularly evaluate, through their self-review programmes, the effectiveness and impact of the range of programmes and strategies they are implementing to prevent bullying” (http://www.tki.org.nz).

Work to improve whole school environment and culture rather than focusing on perpetrators and victims alone. “There are ripple effects from this approach including improving educational outcomes, self-esteem and conflict resolution skills across the school population” (Carroll-Lind, 2009, piii).


Check school policies and procedures

Monitor internet and mobile use

Explore the internet and cyberspace with their children

Install security on home computers

Monitor children’s online activity

Keep communication lines open

(New Zealand Police, 2003). For Students For Schools For Parents Cyberbullying has a profound impact on the learning of all students both on and off school property (Shariff & Johnny, 2007, p327).

Bystanders - not initiators but observers (Carroll-Lind, 2009).

Often occurs away from adults.

Represent social consensus - have an important role in stopping or supporting cyberbullying (Web Aware)

Potentially, unlimited number of witnesses (Web Aware)
Notify police immediately if you receive physical threats.

Guard your contact information.

Log out of the site immediately or block messages. Tell an adult you trust.

Never reply to harassing messages.

Save harassing messages and forward to your Internet or e-mail provider.

Speak out if you see someone harassing others online or via cell phones.
(Raskauksas, 2007) The Victim The Group New Zealand schools rated among the worst category in the world for bullying
More than 50 percent above the international average
The Cyberbully Often involved in other antisocial, delinquent behaviours.
Not a phase they will outgrow.
A quarter of cyberbullies have also bullied offline.
Remaining three quarters do not bully others in person.
Internet has empowered this group.
Feels removed from action due to lack of feedback which miminises empathy or remorse.
(Web Aware)
There is always a power imbalance between victim and bully (Shariff & Johnny 2007).
Belief that cyber bullies took part for ‘entertainment’ (Smith P, et al. 2008). "... profound change in the nature of bullying and youth violence is a subject in drastic need of more research" (Raskauskas. 2010).
(Education Act 1998) (Education Act 1998) Bystanders witnessing bullying Experience less secure learning environment Perceive school environment negatively Tend to be involved in bullying Report more absenteeism and less interested in performance at school My View (TIMSS 2006/07 study, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 2008) cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009, p20). (TIMSS 2006/07 study, International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 2008) cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009, p20). Implications for My Practice as a Teacher? I believe that cyberbullying is a serious issue which can have detrimental effects on all parties involved (the bully, victim, and the group - educational and family). These negative consequences involve, emotional, social and learning issues. I agree everyone involved needs to be educated on this and people need to be responsible to some degree of their own and others safety.

I agree with the following statement to some degree. I think teachers need to be aware of and know their students to be able identify if something may be wrong, eg effects of cyberbullying. However, due to the nature of this harassment it often goes undetected, is hidden from adult view and victims usually don't tell. It is therefore impractical to expect teachers to fulfil this 100 percent effectively.

Teachers have a role in protecting children and keeping them safe from harm, including cyberbullying while in their care. “UNCROC recognises a child’s right to a safe environment and protection from all forms of physical and emotional harm, including bullying on the way to and from school and while on the school’s premises during school hours” (OCC, 2008 cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009, p22). Education is important
Stamp out cyberbullying
To ensure learning is not affected Buhs & Ladd, 2001, cited in Carroll-Lind, 2009 Stop Block Talk Save Photos from Flikr.com as part of creative commons licence:
Girl on iphone - 3601525070_78444c9087
Laptop eye - 3901849292_c962c869ba
Laptop keyboard - 2683642114_bba3d6383e
Laptop Hand - 3010024274_9741ea7194
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