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Transcript of Neolithic Revolution
Peopling of the World and the Neolithic Revolution
Sometimes termed the
Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia.
Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary.
Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurred.
Costs & Advantages of Agriculture
Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?
Areas of Independent Development:
1. SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat)
2. China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig)
3. Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama)
Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion:
2. West & Sub-Saharan Africa (?)
3. Indus River Valley (rice cultivation)
Independent Development vs.
Some nomadic peoples
engaged in pastoralism.
Some practiced slash & burn agriculture.
The violent and peaceful interaction between nomads and agriculturalists endures throughout history. (Trade & raids)
Interactions Between Nomadic Peoples and Sedentary Agricultural Peoples
High starch diets slowly allow
Sedentary populations to grow.
First plow invented c.6000BCE;
crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE.
Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million.
Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out,
nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.
Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate
First Towns Develop
Steady food supplies
Leads to organized societies capable of supporting additional vocations (soldiers, managers, etc.)
Heavily dependent on certain food crops (failure = starvation)
Disease from close contact with animals, humans, & waste
Can’t easily leave sites
: metal workers, pottery workers, farmers, soldiers, religious and political leaders.
(POSSIBLE BECAUSE FOOD SURPLUSES!)
Served as trade centers for the area; specialized in the production of certain unique crafts
(burial rites, art)
Political & Religious leaders were the same
Still relied on limited hunting & gathering for food
Towns Present Evidence of:
Roles of Women
Women generally lost status under male-dominated,
Women were limited in vocation,
worked in food production, etc.
Women may have lacked the
same social rights as men.
Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze
The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools & weapons
Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3,000BCE—ushers in the
Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had.
Further Technological Advancements
Saves labor, allows transport of large loads and enhances trade
Potters Wheel (c.6000BCE)
Allows the construction of more durable clay vessels and artwork
Irrigation & Driven Plows
Allows further increase of food production, encourages pop. growth
Early Human Impact on the Environment
Deforestation in places where copper, bronze, and salt were produced.
Erosion and flooding where agriculture disturbed soil and natural vegetation.
Selective extinction of large land animals and weed plants due to hunting & agriculture.
Advanced Civilization: The Next Step?
By 3500BCE, relatively large, advanced
societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers.
As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and
Artifacts and Culture
is a people's unique way of life; it is learned By overcoming individual differences, culture helps unify the group.
The Paleolithic Age is also called the Stone Age 2.5 Million - 800 B.C.E
BCE= Before the Common Era
Development of the Hominid & Technology
are human made objects such as tools and jewelry. These items
at how people dressed, what work they did, or how they worshipped.