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Neolithic Revolution

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Alyssa Canales

on 23 August 2015

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Transcript of Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution
(8000BCE-3500BCE)
Peopling of the World and the Neolithic Revolution
Sometimes termed the
Agricultural Revolution
.
Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia.
Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary.
Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurred.
Costs & Advantages of Agriculture

Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?
Areas of Independent Development:
1. SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat)
2. China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig)
3. Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama)

Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion:
1. Europe
2. West & Sub-Saharan Africa (?)
3. Indus River Valley (rice cultivation)

Independent Development vs.
Cultural Diffusion
Some nomadic peoples
engaged in pastoralism.

Some practiced slash & burn agriculture.

The violent and peaceful interaction between nomads and agriculturalists endures throughout history. (Trade & raids)

Interactions Between Nomadic Peoples and Sedentary Agricultural Peoples
High starch diets slowly allow
Sedentary populations to grow.

First plow invented c.6000BCE;
crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE.
Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million.

Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out,
displacing
or
assimilating
nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.

Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate
First Towns Develop
Steady food supplies

Greater populations

Leads to organized societies capable of supporting additional vocations (soldiers, managers, etc.)

Advantages
Costs
Heavily dependent on certain food crops (failure = starvation)

Disease from close contact with animals, humans, & waste

Can’t easily leave sites

Catal Huyuk
Modern Turkey

First settled:
c. 7000BCE

Jericho
Modern Israel

First settled:
c. 7000BCE

Developing Towns
Towns require
social

differentiation
: metal workers, pottery workers, farmers, soldiers, religious and political leaders.
(POSSIBLE BECAUSE FOOD SURPLUSES!)

Served as trade centers for the area; specialized in the production of certain unique crafts

Beginnings of
social

stratification
(class)


Religious structures
(burial rites, art)

Political & Religious leaders were the same

Still relied on limited hunting & gathering for food

Towns Present Evidence of:
Roles of Women
Women generally lost status under male-dominated,
patriarchal
systems.

Women were limited in vocation,
worked in food production, etc.

Women may have lacked the
same social rights as men.

Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze
The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools & weapons
Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3,000BCE—ushers in the
Bronze Age!

Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had.

Further Technological Advancements
Wheeled Vehicles
Saves labor, allows transport of large loads and enhances trade
Potters Wheel (c.6000BCE)
Allows the construction of more durable clay vessels and artwork

Irrigation & Driven Plows
Allows further increase of food production, encourages pop. growth
Early Human Impact on the Environment

Deforestation in places where copper, bronze, and salt were produced.

Erosion and flooding where agriculture disturbed soil and natural vegetation.

Selective extinction of large land animals and weed plants due to hunting & agriculture.

Advanced Civilization: The Next Step?
By 3500BCE, relatively large, advanced
preliterate
societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers.

As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and
human environments
.

Artifacts and Culture
Culture
is a people's unique way of life; it is learned By overcoming individual differences, culture helps unify the group.
The Paleolithic Age is also called the Stone Age 2.5 Million - 800 B.C.E
BCE= Before the Common Era
Development of the Hominid & Technology
Artifacts
are human made objects such as tools and jewelry. These items
might hint
at how people dressed, what work they did, or how they worshipped.
Theories
Full transcript