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Chapter XI The Passion and Resurrection
Transcript of Chapter XI The Passion and Resurrection
THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION
PRELUDE TO THE PASSION
Teachings of the Church on Jesus' Passion and Death
The Last Supper that Jesus celebrated was the Passover meal of the Old Testament. In the Gospel of John, Jesus surprised his disciples by washing their feet. It is an action full of symbolic meaning.
"The washing of his disciples' feet was much more than a ritual or customary act. For Jesus it was an example which they had to follow. Jesus' teaching was that true leadership must be found in humble service. He who wants to be great must humble himself. He who wants to be the leader must make himself the servant of all" (Loc Colla, 100)
1. Jesus spoke of this death. He warned his disciples about this. He understood his passion and death as a mission from the Father. He knew where his life and ministry were taking him. Jesus portrayed the death of the Son at the hands of vineyard's wicked tenants. Jesus interpreted his coming death in line with the Old Testament.
2. Jesus came into conflict with the religious and secular authorities
a. His association with outcast and sinners such as tax collectors and women of ill-repute and therefore by association,Jesus was considered a sinner himself.
b. His divergence in interpretation of the Law of Moses such as healing the sick on Sabbath. He was accused of not observing the Law of Moses. In his teachings, Jesus emphasized that there is a higher law of charity that takes precedence over the ritual law of the Sabbath.
c. Jesus addressed God in the most intimate of terms as his "Abba" (Father). According to Jewish custom, the name of God was so sacred it was never openly uttered. And so, the fact that Jesus called God his Father and spoke of this Father in the most intimate way was simply unacceptable to the religious leaders of his time.
d. Jesus is considered a threat to the security of the nation. Jesus was always followed by a huge crowd. They saw Jesus doing many signs which led people to believe in him.
The Washing of the Feet
The Last Supper accounts of Mark and Matthew are framed by the imitation of Judas' betrayal and Peter's denial. Thus Jesus was well- aware what is to come.
In Mark, "he offers his body and his blood in total destitution knowing that he can except neither recognition nor fidelity from men.
Matthew emphasizes that by offering his body and bloody, Jesus fulfills the scriptures.
Luke presents this farewell meal as an expression of Jesus complete trust in God. It was also an occasion for giving the last instruction to his disciples; as well as prophetic action by which Jesus expressed the significance of his martyrdom: the inauguration of the new covenant.
"Jesus gave the supreme expression of his free offering of himself at the meal shared with the twelve Apostles 'on the night he was betrayed '.On the eve of his Passion, while still free, Jesus transformed this Last Supper with the Apostles into the memorial of his voluntary offering to the Father for salvation of men."
The Passion and Death of Narratives
A. Agony in the Garden
Mark present Jesus as truly human. He is afraid of death. He was in anguish, deeply distressed and troubled. And so, he sought relief from God as a child to his parent, expressed in the most endearing term " Abba" (Father).
Matthew' s account of the agony in the garden shows Jesus as a man whose soul was overwhelmed with sorrow.
In Luke, Jesus emerged as the victor over the powers of evil. In prayer, an angel of heaven appeared in order to sustain him. Jesus has been resolutely strengthened, peacefully submissive to the will of his Father.
B. Jesus' arrest
In Mark' s account, when Jesus was arrested, all his disciples forsook him.
In Matthew, at the time of the arrest, Jesus even managed to teach the crowd against the use of violence. He also refused to use his miraculous power to defend himself.
John does not describe Jesus' in agony nor the flight of the disciples,
but simply presents the majesty of Jesus.
C. Jesus' trial before the Sanhedrin
In Mark, at the trial before the Jewish religious authorities, Jesus admitted himself as the Messiah, the glorified Son of Man. The affirmation was met with mockery and physical abuse of Jesus by the guards and followed by the account of Peter's denial of Jesus.
In Matthew's account, Jesus proclaimed that henceforth, he will be instituted by the Father into the power of the exalted Son of Man, the enthroned Messiah.
Jewish trial in Luke opens with the account of Peter's denial. Luke tells us, If you cannot follow the passion of a saint, you can always follow it as a forgiven sinner. The gaze of Jesus can always bring about new beings in you. Jesus proclaims clearly that he is Christ and Son of God.
Week of the Passion
The Last Supper
John does not describe the appearance of Jesus before the Jewish court. When Jesus was taken in custody, there was only interrogation by Annas, but there is no trial. Annas was no longer the high priest, yet he questioned Jesus about his disciples and teachings. Jesus was in control, even in his own interrogation. He refused to discuss his teaching and gave no information about his disciples to protect them. However he rebutted all the charges with confidence.
D. Roman Trial
In Mark, before the Roman procurator, the high priest and other religious leaders accuse Jesus of claiming to be the King of the Jews. They called for his death, they crowned him with thorns.
In Matthew, the intervention of Pilate's wife who recognized that Jesus is a righteous man. But the Jews wanted him crucified. Pilate then washed his hands and declared that the Jews must take responsibility of Jesus death.
Luke emphasizes Pilate's recognition of the innocence of Jesus and declared that he found no case against this man. To appease the Jews, he suggested the whipping of Jesus, a lighter punishment and actually wanted to release him.
In John's passion scene, the comings and goings of Pilate, from Jesus who is inside, to the Jews outside, break up the event into seven matching scenes, with the crowning of Jesus with thorns at their center. This is the great legal action between Jesus and Jews. Jesus is accused but in fact he is the judge. Jesus is king, but he is sovereign who reigns over those who hear his word. The scenes reveal that the trail was about power and kingship.
E. Crucifixion and Death
Mark,s account of Calvary takes up the theme of the two trials: (1) Jesus as King of Jews is crucified by the Roman authorities between two thieves (2) Jesus as the Christ is mocked by high priest. However, it is by dying, abandoned by all, by taking upon himself all human pain as the "Suffering Servant" that Jesus reveals how he is both King and Christ.
Matthew presents the death of Jesus as the end of the old world and the beginning of a new world.
In Luke, Jesus accepted his death as an act of obedience to his Father, manifested through the noble calm with which he accepts his destiny. he also declared his innocence to the women who were lamenting him and consoled him.
John is the only one to highlight the importance of Mary at the foot of the cross. By calling her "woman" and entrusting her beloved disciple as her son, John emphasizes the special role of Mary in the Church.
When Jesus died, he handed over his spirit. In doing this so, Jesus portrayed as sending out his Spirit into the world. It shows the significance of the death of Christ for us. He is the paschal lamb of the new covenant. Even more, he is God
himself being pierced.
F. The Burial
In Mark, the account of the burial is peaceful. The women disciples of Jesus saw where his body was laid. The last honors were paid to Jesus and the night of the burial became a night of expectation.
In Luke, the burial is prepared most affectionately by the women- spices and perfume, on the morning after the Sabbath
In John, Jesus' burial brings two Jewish authorities more fully into the light: Joseph of Arimathea, a disciple in secret out of fear of the Jews; and Nicodemus, who had come to see Jesus by night. They lay him in a garden. Jesus received royal treatment as he was laid in a new tomb
First, he removes their subjective guilt by bringing them God's pardon and forgiveness.
" He was pierced for our offenses, crushed for our sins;
A. Characteristic of Christ's Suffering and Death
Jesus saw his Passion and Death as redemptive, his ultimate service in Kingdom.
Second, Jesus repairs the objective moral harm and contamination caused by sin, through his own act of reparation and expiation which makes possible the sinner's own acts of expiation.
Upon him was the chastisement that makes us whole,
by his stripes we were healed.
1. First, Jesus died because of our human sinfullness
Profound Effects of Christ's Death
Christ's Cross on Calvary stands as a symbol of his universal redeeming love
Horizontal bar stretches Christ's arms to embrace the whole world of human suffering and vertical points him toward his heavenly Father
He died that those who will follow him will receive "eternal life in the age to come"
The grace represent in us makes our actions possess " saving work"; Jesus empowers us to share in his work
1. Jesus Christ is the Savior of the world; there is no salvation apart from Jesus
2. Through his sufferings and death he has won for us sinners " objective redemption", that is reconciled all with the Father
3. He did this in loving obedience to his Father's will and love for us
4. He calls us to a personal interior repentance for our sins and a life of loving service and others
The Essence of the New Testament Theology of Salvation in Christ
C. Resurrection Narratives
The Resurrection of Jesus is the crowning truth of our faith in Chirst, a faith believed and lived, as the central truth by the first Christian community; handed on as fundamental by Tradition; established by the documents of the New Testament; and preached as an essential part of the Paschal mystery along with the cross
Proofs of the Resurrection
The Empty Tomb
In the synoptic accounts, Mary Magdalene and the women went to the tomb early in the morning after the Sabbath, to annoint Jesus; body but found the tomb empty.
John builds his account. While Mary Magdalene alone was first to discover the empty tomb, it was Peter and the other disciples whom Jesus loved, who entered and ascertained for themselves its occurance.
The empty tomb was a source of faith in the risen Jesus. This point helps us understand why the burial place of Jesus remains to this day an important holy place for Christians
Christ died for our sins mean?
2. Second, he died to show us, to overcome sin and its effects in our broken world. Christ is the Way we are enabled to bear the sins of many, not returning evil for evil, nor violence for violence in a vicious cycle of revenge. Christ's love gives us a chance to love even our enemies, for he has sent us his Spirit of love
Apperance of the Risen Lord
The Apperance to Private Individuals
a. The women at the tomb were taken by surprise. They went to the tomb to anoint Jesus' body but instead found a messenger. They were given a task of announcing the good news to the disciples that Jesus is alive
In John's account, Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene near the tomb. At first, Mary did not recognize the risen Lord. Recognition dawned on her when Jesus calls her, "Mary" and she calls him "Rabboni". Jesus tells Mary that the reason for her inadequate recognition was because Jesus; mission is not yet complete. When the Holy Spirit comes, she would have a new and even closer relationship with Jesus than before.
Jesus apperance to Mary emphasizes a new relationship and a new message. So Mary tells the disciples, "I have seen the Lord". This is our task. Jesus meets and calls us to become an apostle and announce "I have seen the Lord.
Jesus' appearance to the two disciples
It is model of scriptural instruction which leads to sacramental participation in the life of Christ. In the case of the meal at Emmaus, it is especially in the breaking bread that Christ is recognized, acknowledge and accepted
Official Appearance to the Disciples in the Community
In Matthew, Jesus' apperance on the mountain in Galilee is met with disbelief by some of the disciples. There is still amazement and incomprehesion.
In John's account, Jesus's apperance in the upper room contrasted with Thomas' skepticism.
These incidents show that belief in resurrection is not easy for the frightened disciples of Jesus. The scene of Thomas touching Jesus' wounds shows that Jesus directly links faith with encountering him in his risen life.
In Luke, the disciples are being prepared for thei mission. Jesus' appearance elicited reactions of awed disbelief but their joy at seeing Jesus is amazing.
The final instruction of Jesus; the key to understanding what happened lies in the scriptures.
In John, this is the scene by which Jesus commissioned his disciples. Jesus appears to the eleven and he comes and stands among them and says " Peace be with you".
Jesus has fulfilled his promises to be with his disciples and brings them peace and joy.
Teachings of the Church
A. The Theological- Historical Commission for the Great Jubilee
The resurrection indicates the fact that Jesus was restored, together with his humanity, to God's glorious , full and immortal life. For this reason, his risen body, while maintaining its identify and human reality, was rendered capable of living forever in God
B.The Condition of Christ's Risen Humanity
Christ's Resurrection was not a return to earthly life. At Jesus' Resurrection his body is filled with the power of the Holy Spirit: he shares divine life in his glorious state
C. What the Resurrection Is Not
1. The resurrection is not a reanimation, that is, a simple return to earthly life, to be followed by a second death.
2. The resurrection is not simply the immortality of the soul.
3. The resurrection is not reincarnation like the belief of Hindus and Buddhist.
4. The resurrection is not "the simple recollection of Jesus and his teachings, as if this caused the conviction in the disciples' mind that he was present after his death.
Evolution Of Jewish Belief in the Resurrection of the Dead
Some of the Jews began to believe in the resurrection of the Body at the coming of the Messianic age.
The Jews began to believe in a place called " Sheol", the realm of the dead, which itself was also a state of non- existence, for those in it are oblivious of their existence.
No belief in life after death at all. The death of the body is the death of the person. Bodiless existence is totally inconceivable
Realizing the great love of Yahweh for Israel which not even death can end, Israel began believing in life after death as a communal hope that Yahweh will save Israel from death.
D. The Meaning and Saving Significance of the Resurrection
1. The resurrection of Christ confirms Christ's works and teachings.
2. It fulfills the prophecies of the Old Testament on the coming Savior of the world.
3. It confirms Jesus' divinity
4. It opens the way to a new life, i.e., our jurisdiction, namely, our reinstatement in God's grace.
5. Christ's death freed us from sin, and his Resurrection brought us a share in the new life of adopted sons/daughters of the Father in the Holy Spirit.
6. Christ is the principle and source of our future resurrection.
E. The Meaning of Resurrection " For Us"
1. The resurrection is the event that repairs the friendship between God and man in which the divine life.
2. The resurrection is also the fulfillment of man's hope for immortality and transcendence.
3. Jesus' resurrection is the experience of encountering him in the breaking of the bread, in Eucharistic communion.
4. Jesus' resurrection is also an experience of vocation and mission
5. Jesus' resurrection is an experience of forgiveness.
6. For the disciples, the resurrection is an experience of total conversion of Jesus.
7. Jesus' resurrection is also an event of liberation, is as much as it radically transforms humanity and nature, freeing them from the nets of sin, death and suffering, whether physical, moral or psychological.
8. The resurrection really promote woman as disciple, hearer and messenger of the Word of God