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Magnetism Prezi

Group C2
by

Keshav Varma

on 26 May 2011

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Transcript of Magnetism Prezi

Made By Background Information Classification of Magnets Permanent Magnets Electric Field VS Magnetic Field The Prospects and Implications of Magnetism Satya Bodduluri, Utkash Dubey, Keshav Varma C Period Group 2 Magnetic Field Magnetic Moment Magnetism Three main types Temporary Magnets Electromagnets Superconductors Magnets that create their own persistent magnetic field Examples:
refrigerator magnets
neodymium (earth) magnets Metals that are readily magnetized but retain a very small field after the external magnetic field is removed Examples:
paperclips
refrigerator doors
iron Magnet whose magnetic field is created by the flow of artificial electrical current Materials with zero resistance when brought to a certain temperature (Chubukov, Efremov, Eremin, 2008). Examples:
speakers
motors
doorbell Examples:
MRI
particle accelerators
magnetic levitation trains (Maglev) Diamagnetism Ferromagnetism Paramagnetism ("Types of Magnetism", n.d.) ("Types of Magnetism", n.d.) ("Types of Magnetism", n.d.) Ferrofluid (video) first magnetism observed by humans, most prominent in nature
strongest type and only one to be commonly considered magnetic
all permanent magnets are either ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic (different magnetic moments) mixture of magnetic particles in a liquid
the liquid contains surfactant
surfactant keeps particles from clumping
magnetic particles in the solution are attracted to the magnet, but the surfactant will keep the magnetic particles from clumping completely similar to diamagnetism
also occurs as a result of disrupted orbital velocities
magnetism triggered by external magnetic field
attracted to external magnetic field
elements with unpaired valence elctrons Demo - Copper Pipe Faraday’s law: change in magnetic environment of a coil of wire causes a voltage to be induced in the coil
as the magnet falls, it induces a current in the pipe which then creates a weak magnetic field, slowing the fall of the magnet (Diamagnetism, n.d.) How magnets are made Challenge rare earth metals are extremely expensive to process and are in short supply (Biello, 2010)
prices have increased 300-700% in the last year (Galluci, 2011)
if our sources of rare earth metals are exhausted, effective replacements will be necessary to perform their tasks
currently, nothing performs to the extent of rare earth magnets without any extra complications Advantages/Disadvantages Current applications Because of their invisible forces, magnets have many different practical applications including:
Credit cards
MRI
Motors
Generators
Computers movement of electric charges (electrons) (Nave, n.d.)
most metals: negligible properties, ambiguous magnetism vectors
multiple electrons with the same spin --> magnetic moment increases (Nave, n.d.) Ferromagnets (Magnetic Field, n.d.) Advantages Disadvantages materials' response to an externally applied magnetic field
all materials are influenced by magnetic fields (Wilson, 2007)
substances with minimal response considered non-magnetic (i.e. aluminum, copper, plastic) (Wilson, 2007) no energy required to maintain magnetic field strong ferromagnets rely on rare-earth materials that are expensive to mine and process ---------- electrons without an opposite spinning partner create magnetic moment (“Ferromagnetic Materials”, 2008)
ferromagnets have multiple unpaired electrons attraction-repulsion vector; magnitude and direction, measured in teslas
combined strength of vectors give overall magnetic moment (“Ferromagnetic Materials”, 2008) (Inside an Atom, n.d.) Disadvantages ---------- Advantages require cryogenic (below -150 C) temperatures Superconductors very strong, no energy wasted as heat Advantages Requires lots of energy, much of it released as heat controllable state based on energy put in Disadvantages Electromagnets ---------- Cutting Edge Research New uses for magnetic forces are being developed:

Transportation of particles within blood and tissue (Nacev, Beni, Bruno, Shapiro, 2011)
Cancer cell removal with magnetic nanoparticles (Berger, 2010)
Rail guns
Magnetic levitation
May 15, 2011: Magnet powered air conditioning/refrigeration
Large Hadron Collider (most powerful particle accelerator) Rail Gun Capable of launching objects over long distances at supersonic speeds
Could potentially launch small unmanned vehicles into space (Railguns magnetic field effect, 2005) Maglev Trains based on electromagnets or superconductors
restricted only by air drag, no friction from tracks (Maglev Propulsion, 2008) Solutions Superconductors are being advanced in order to be more practical
Federal government has offered $30 million in DOE grants for research into alternatives for rare-earth metals (Gallucci, 2011)
Electromagnets may be a viable replacement in the future
Dysprosium earth magnets: more abundant resource, tougher to extract (Biello, 2010) Sources Magnetic air conditioner Primary Chubukov, A. V., Efremov, D. V., & Eremin, I. (2008). Magnetism, superconductivity, and pairing symmetry in Fe-based superconductors. Physical Review B, 78. Retrieved May 20, 2011, fromhttp://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0807/0807.3735v2.pdf
Nacev, A., Beni, C., Bruno, O., & Shapiro, B. (2010). Magnetic nanoparticle transport within flowing blood and into surrounding tissue. Nanomedicine, 5, 1459-1466. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.controlofmems.umd.edu/publications/journal-papers/2010/NacevEtAl_MagNPsInVesselsAndTissue(withSI)_Nanomedicine_Nov10.pdf
Scanlan, R.M.(2011). Superconducting magnet technology for future hadron colliders. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL Paper LBNL-39932. RetrievedMay 24, 2011 from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/299934tm Secondary 7 Radical Energy Solutions, Made Interactive: Scientific American. (2011, May 16). Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. Retrieved May 24, 2011, fromhttp://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=radical-energy-solutions-interactive
[Bar magnets]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, fromhttp://www.physics.sjsu.edu/becker/physics51/images/28_01_Bar_magnets.JPG
Berger, M. (2010, July 27). Nanomagnets remove pathogens from blood. Nanotechnology and Nanoscience | Nanowerk. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=17353.php
Biello, D. (2010, October 13). Rare earths: Elemental needs of clean-energy economy. Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=rare-earths-elemental-needs-of-the-clean-energy-economy
[Diamagnetism]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.kids.esdb.bg/images/diamagnetism.jpg
[Electromagnet]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/images/electromagnetic_circuit.gif
Faber, I. (n.d.). Difference between electric and magnetic fields. Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-electric-and-magnetic-fields/
Ferromagnetic materials. (2008, January). Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/ferromagnetic/index.php
Gallucci, M. (2011, April 29). $30 Million in DOE grants for green technologies free of rare earth elements. Business & Financial News, Breaking US & International News | Reuters.com. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/29/idUS86627191420110429
Helmenstine, A. M. (n.d.). How to make liquid magnets. Chemistry - Periodic Table, Chemistry Projects, and Chemistry Homework Help. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://chemistry.about.com/od/demonstrationsexperiments/ss/liquidmagnet.htm
Inside an atom [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/magnet-electron-shell.gif
Internal workings of the maglev train [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/magnetacademy/superconductivity101/images/superconductivity-maglevcut.jpg
Kodama, S. and Yasushi Miyajima (Creators). (2007, April 2). Morpho towers -- Two stand [Video] Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=me5Zzm2TXh4
Maglev propulsion [Digital image]. (2008, January 25). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c2/Maglev_Propulsion.svg
Magnetic field. (n.d.). Magnetic Field. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/magfie.html
[Magnetic field]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://mousely.com/wiki_image/5/57/Magnet0873.png
Magnetism. (2009, August 18). Howstuffworks "Science" Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnetism-info.htm
Maxwell, G. F. (2006, July 9). [Ferrofluid magnet under glass]. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Ferrofluid_Magnet_under_glass_edit.jpg
[MRI]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://brainimaging.waisman.wisc.edu/facilities/images/mri2009.jpg
[Permanent magnets]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://cfnewsads.thomasnet.com/images/large/452/452515.jpg
Railguns magnetic field effect [Digital image]. (2005). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/railgun-8.gif
Study helps explain behavior of superconductors. (2011, May 5). US News & World Report | News & Rankings | Best Colleges, Best Hospitals, and More. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.usnews.com/science/articles/2011/05/05/study-helps-explain-behavior-of-superconductors
[Superconductors]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.chemistryland.com/CHM130W/12-Gases/superconductor2.jpg
The large hadron collider/ATLAS at CERN [Digital image]. (2007, November 18). Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2326/2046228644_daab5255bd_o.jpg
[Temporary magnet]. (n.d.). Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.fadingad.com/blog/electromagnet/tempmagnet.jpg
Types of magnetism. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2011, from http://kdb.steorn.com/lrp/sd/sd15.pdf
Wilson, T. V. (2007, April 02). How magnets work. Howstuffworks "Science" Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/magnet.htm Multiple ways to create magnets (“Magnetism”, 2009): Stroking - an existing magnet is swiped along the length of an object to orient atoms, creating a magnetic field (MRI, n.d.) External field - materials retain some of the magnetism from an external magnetic field after it is removed Manufacturing - metal is heated past Curie temperature, shaped and cooled in a magnetic field Hammering - striking a metal while in the presence of a magnetic field can align the atoms within it (Bar Magnets, n.d.) Demo change in magnetic moment creates a new magnetic field
external magnetic fields change the speed of orbiting electrons which changes the overall magnetic moment
new field repels external magnetic fields Magnetic Nanoparticle Transportation magnetic drug targeting allows for focused delivery of medicines (eg. targeted chemotherapy)
early stages of clinical testing particle size, shape
flow against blood stream
effective areas Area of force around charged particle caused by movement of electic charges -------------------- magnetocaloric effect: heat up when exposed to magnetic field
remove from field --> cools down
water to take in heat leaves cool alloy on the opposite end
basis of green refrigeration and air conditioning

idea originally ignored, theoretically takes cryogenic temperatures
new alloys allow for room temperature use Exerts force on other charged particles moving electric fields in one direction create current Area of force around magnetic material or moving electric charge Superconductors in Particle Accelerators long tunnels that accelerate particles in straight beams
"Superconducting magnets are the enabling technology for high energy colliders"
research being done to find stronger superconductors (8.6 T vs. 15 T)
new materials have to be used for fields >10 T
current materials are too brittle for use Units: Newtons/Coulomb or Volts/meter Units: Gauss or Tesla -------------------------------------------------- Magneic materials have inherent magnetic fields very similar forces (Magnetic Field, n.d.) moving charge has both electric and magnetic fields both are vector fields; have both direction and magnitude (Helmenstine, n.d.) Special thanks to Rick Pam and the Stanford University Physics Department (Scanlan, 2011) (Nacev, Beni, Bruno, Shapiro, 2011) (7 Radical, 2011 (Faber, n.d.) (Kodama, Miyajima, 2007) (Permanent Magnets, n.d.) (Temporary Magnet, n.d.) (Electromagnet, n.d.) (Superconductors, n.d.) (Maxwell, 2006) (Internal Workings of the Maglev Train, n.d.) (Large hadron collider, 2007)
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