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Transcript of TEXTILES
The factory system
'The industrial revolution'
The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the period in the 18th and 19th centuries when Britain was transformed from a predominantly agricultural nation into the manufacturing workshop of the world. Because to solve the problems, machines were invented to speed up the production.
The domestic system
In 1714 , most goods were made by hand in people's homes. Almost everything was made in this way (in people's own cottages) so we call this industry the domestic system. And the biggest cottage industry of all was the cloth industry.
What are textiles?
A textile is a type of material composed of natural or synthetic fibers. Types of textiles include animal-based material such as wool or silk, plant-based material such as linen and cotton, and synthetic material such as polyester and rayon. Textiles are often associated with the production of clothing.
The problems of the domestic system in the cloth industry
As the population grew, so did the demand for cloth. Cotton cloth from India had become popular. British merchants wanted to increase their profits by making more cotton cloth in Britain. They also wanted to keep prices down. But the domestic system was slow and inefficient.
Richard Arkwright was responsible for the switch form hoe to factory production. He patented his spinning frame in 1769. He didn't use this machine for cottages (because it could). First he powered the machine with horses. Then he moved and used water to power the machines. By 1789, 800 people worked in the mill. By his death he was running ten mills and had made a fortune of 500 000 pounds. With this the factory age had arrived.
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The factory system had arrived but still some people kept working in their cottages, but as time went by this people found it hard to compete with machines. Some of them had to go to work to factories along with their wives and children. The old way of life was being replaced by quite a different one.