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Ancient Egypt

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a banks

on 29 March 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
Nile River Delta
Social Patterns
Political Patterns
Religion and Culture
Nile River Valley
Fertile soil=
Flooded the same time every year

Egypt vs.


The Nile flows north
Economic benefits =
Transportation and trade
Red= desert land
Black= fertile soil after floods
farming and agriculture
Provided protection from invasions
Close to the

Red Sea
Lower Egypt= North
Upper Egypt= South
Skilled laborers/artisans
pharaoh= king or ruler
Hereditary rulers
top of social pyramid
were worshipped as
in charge of Egyptian religion
helped pharaoh to prepare for afterlife
part of ancient Egyptian social 'elite'
Specialized skills
official recordkeepers
wrote in hieroglyphics
bottom of social structure
built the pyramids
prisoners of war
unskilled laborers
specialized skills
canal builders
pottery makers
to 'elite' (priests, scribes, pharaoh)
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
centralized government ruled by pharaohs
Pharaohs= owned land, made laws, collected taxes, went to war
"Lord of Two Lands"
pharaoh= head of religion and government in ancient Egypt
pharaoh= hereditary ruler; power passed down through generations
Dynasty= a line of rulers that are members of the same family
First pyramids are built
Djoser= Step pyramid
Khufu= Great Pyramid of Giza
nomarchs contributed to decline
After Old Kingdom= First Intermediate Period
period of economic stability
expansion of Egyptian power
Egypt conquered Nubia along the Upper Nile
Middle Kingdom followed by Second Intermediate Period
"Golden Age" of Egypt
successful military campaigns= expansion of Egyptian territory
many famous pharaohs
Ramesses II
followed by Third Intermediate Period; Egypt conquered by Nubia
polytheism= belief in many gods
pharaohs= gods
Believed in an afterlife
Buried pharaohs in tombs or pyramids
Embalmed or mummified bodies
Believed a pharaoh needed everything in the Afterlife
that they needed in their present life.
Buried all needed items in the tomb with the pharaoh
examples of items included:
Canopic jars=
held pharaoh's organs that they would need in the afterlife
help pharaoh navigate through underworld
Sarcophagus= contained the mummified pharaoh
other items included:

furniture, jewelry, weapons,
clothes, etc.
agricultural surplus= better tools, plows, irrigation
surplus allowed for specialization of labor
Black ink
First ox-drawn plows
ancient Egyptian inventions include:
365 day calendar and Leap Year
made paper from papyrus
advanced system of organized labor
made sails for boats
system of writing= hieroglyphics
first form of writing in ancient Egypt
symbols represented letters (rather than) ideas
decorated pyramids, tombs, temples with hieroglyphics
impossible to read until discovery of Rosetta Stone

key to decoding hieroglyphics
contained three languages including Greek
Rosetta Stone:
(What type of government is that?)
Empties into Mediterranean Sea
Pharaoh Menes; 3100 BCE united Upper/ Lower Egypt
Capital at Memphis
Full transcript